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TABLE 1

Characteristics of Included Studies of MI Interventions for Adolescents With Overweight or Obesity

StudyDesignParticipantsCountryIntervention CharacteristicsOutcomesMain Findings
SettingDescriptionDose
Ball et al25  RCT N = 46, aged 12–18 y; 61% girls; 85% white Canada Multidisciplinary pediatric wt management clinic MI training: 2 d in person; MI fidelity: not reported; intervention: nutrition and PA education, self-monitoring, with the addition of MI and CBT; Control: wait list 16 45–60-min sessions; follow-up: 16–20 wk (1) anthropometry (wt, BMI, BMI z score, BMI percentile, waist circumference), (2) cardiometabolic (total cholesterol, insulin, glucose), (3) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA; pedometers, fitness, treadmill) No differences overall. Completers only had 3.9% and 6.5% decrease in BMI z score compared with 0.8% increase in control (P < .001) 
Brennan26  RCT N = 63, aged 11–19 y; 54% girls Australia Psychology clinics MI training: international training not described; MI fidelity: videotaped interviews coded, scores not reported; intervention: 12 CBT sessions that included nutrition and PA education, 1 CBT phone call, PI (sessions 1–7), with the addition of 1 MI session; control: wait list 1 60-min session; follow-up: 4–6 mo (1) anthropometry (wt, body fat, BMI, BMI z score, body circumference: hip, waist, upper arm, forearm); (2) fitness (cycle ergometer), metabolic rate (caloriometry); (3) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA, accelerometer) No differences overall 
Chahal et al27  RCT N = 32, aged 10–17; 38% girls Canada Pediatric outpatient clinic MI training: 2, 3-d in person; MI fidelity: MI Network of Trainers and clinical psychologist provided ongoing feedback, random audio recordings coding indicating high fidelity; intervention: nutrition and PA education to child-parent dyads; control: nutrition and PA education to child alone 4 30–45-min sessions plus 4 follow-up phone calls; follow-up: 6 mo (1) anthropometry (wt, waist circumference, wt-to-height ratio, BMI), (2) cardiometabolic (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, glucose, non–HDL-C, insulin, HOMA-IR), (3) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA, accelerometer), (4) quality of life (self-reported) No differences in anthropometry or cardiometabolic. In favor of alone group in self-reported fats and/or sugars (P = .02) and screen time (P = .02); both groups had reductions in BMI (P < .001), waist circumference (P < .001), total cholesterol (P < .001), LDL-C (P < .001), triglycerides (P = .01), non–HDL-C (P < .001), insulin (P = .01), and HOMA-IR (P = .02) and improvements in dietary and/or PA and quality of life 
Christie et al28  RCT N = 174, aged 12–19 y; 63% girls England Local community settings MI training: 2 d in person plus 3 d training on obesity; MI fidelity: psychologist observed each provider deliver session 1, remaining sessions audio recorded and coded, 76% rated good; intervention: MI family (PI)-based nutrition and PA education with solution-focused behavior change approach; control: enhanced standard of care (Department of Health nutrition and PA education) 12 40–45-min sessions; follow-up: 6.5 and 13 mo; control: 1 60-min session (1) anthropometry (wt, BMI, BMI z score, waist circumference, fat mass), (2) cardiometabolic (triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, insulin, glucose), (3) behavioral (acceloerometry); (4) quality of life (self-reported), psychological health No differences overall 
Christison et al29 a Pre/post N = 18 of 100 total (18% aged 12–16 y); 55% girls; 55% white United States Pediatric primary care MI training: 2, 1.5 h in person; MI fidelity: 1 random encounter per provider, audio recording coded, scores not reported; intervention: MI-based coaching tool that included nutrition and PA education with goal setting with child-parent dyad 1 session; follow-up: 1 and 6 mo (1) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA), (2) anthropometry (BMI) No differences in anthropometrics. In favor of MI in reported dietary and/or PA goals overall (P < .001); 7 of 18 reported meeting goals most to almost always; patient motivation high in MI-adherent providers (P = .04). 
Davis et al30  RCT N = 38, aged 14–16 y; Latina girls United States Lifestyle intervention laboratory MI training: 1 in person plus 4 group trainings by MINT trainers, ongoing coaching; MI fidelity: subsample of audio recordings coded, global ratings met proficiency on average overall; intervention: PA circuit training (education, exercise) plus the addition of MI; control: wait list Circuit training: 2× per wk; circuit training plus 4 MI sessions; follow-up: 16 wk (1) anthropometry (wt, BMI, BMI percentile, hip and waist circumference, body fat), (2) cardiometabolic (glucose, HOMA-IR), (3) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA); fitness (treadmill) No differences overall. Circuit training with or without MI intervention groups compared with controls significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness (15%, 16%, P = .03). 
Gourlan et al31  RCT N = 54, aged 11–18 y; 41% girls France Hospital MI training: 32 h in person, 40 h reading; MI fidelity: random audio recordings coded, scores above proficiency except 1 category; intervention: standard wt loss program (PA education) plus the addition of MI; control: standard wt loss program (PA education) Both groups received 2 30-min sessions; MI: 6 additional 20-min MI phone sessions; follow-up: 3 and 6 mo (1) behavioral (self-reported PA, accelerometer); (2) anthropometry (BMI) No differences overall. In favor of MI in BMI at 3 mo (−1 point, P < .001), no differences at 6 mo; greater PA length over time (∼0.25 and 0.5 h/d at 3 mo [P < .001] and 6 mo [P < .01]) and energy expenditure (∼10 and 25 kcal/d at 3 mo [P < .001] and 6 mo [P < .01]). 
Kong et al32  RCT N = 60, aged 13–16 y; 62% girls; 75% Hispanic United States 2 urban, school-based health centers MI training: 2 d in person; MI fidelity: 3 pilot MI sessions audio recorded, reviewed with trainers, coaching throughout, coding not reported; intervention: standard of care (nutrition and PA education) with MI-based sessions, parent telephone updates; control: standard of care (nutrition and PA education) 8 28-min (average) sessions; control: 1 47-min (average) visit, review medical results; follow-up: 7 mo (1) anthropometry (wt, BMI, BMI percentile, waist circumference), (2) cardiometabolic (glucose, HDL-C, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR), (3) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA, accelerometer) In favor of MI in BMI percentile (−0.3%, P = .04), waist circumference (0 cm, P = .04, control +1.7 cm), sedentary behaviors (television watching −0.4 h/d, P = .04) 
Love-Osbourne et al33  RCT N = 165, aged 14–17 y; 52% girls; 88% Hispanic United States 2 school-based health centers MI training: full d in person with 1 follow-up session; MI fidelity: not reported; intervention: standard of care (physical examination, laboratory screening) with MI-based sessions with nutrition and PA education, weekly self-monitoring logs, text message reminders to random sample; control: standard of care (physical examination, laboratory screening) 1–8 sessions (mean = 5); follow-up: 6–8 mo (1) cardiometabolic (total cholesterol hemoglobin A1c, ALT), (2) anthropometry (BMI, BMI z score, BMI percentile), (3) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA); fitness testing (endurance run) No differences overall 
MacDonnell et al34  RCT N = 44, aged 13–17 y; 79% girls, African American United States Urban adolescent medicine clinic MI training: 16 h in person plus weekly supervision; MI fidelity: audio recordings coded, scores not reported; intervention: MI-based counseling with nutrition and PA education with adolescent-parent dyads; control: nutrition education for adolescent-parent dyads 4 60-min sessions for both groups; follow-up: 3 mo (1) anthropometry (wt, BMI); (2) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA) No differences in anthropometrics. In favor of MI self-reported fast food use per wk (−1.07 times per wk, P = .02), soft drink frequency per wk (−0.75 on 6-point Likert scale, P = .04), activity motivation (+7.79 on 1–7-point scale for 11 items, P = .03), but decreased activity 
Maggio et al35  Cohort N = 283, aged 3–17 y, (36% >12 y); 51% girls France Pediatric obesity care program MI training: 3 d (MI and CBT); MI fidelity: not reported; intervention: MI-based discussions with nutrition and PA education plus goal setting with child-parent dyads, psychological therapy for mental health problems as needed First session 1-h, follow-up sessions 30–45-min, 1–3 mo intervals between sessions, mean sessions 4.6; follow-up: mean 11.4 mo (1) anthropometry (BMI, BMI z scores) No differences overall 
Neumark-Sztainer et al36  RCT N = 356 girls, aged 14–16 y; >75% racial and/or ethnic minorities United States 12 urban high schools MI training: full d in person plus ongoing support; MI fidelity: not reported; intervention: all girls’ PA (exercise) education class first school y semester plus MI-based counseling with nutrition education and self-empowerment over school y, lunch meetings, 6 postcards reinforcing curriculum mailed home to parents; control: all girls’ PA education class during first school y semester 5–7 sessions during physical education class; follow-up: 16 wk (1) anthropometry (BMI, percent of body fat); (2) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA) No differences in anthropometrics. In favor of MI in reported sedentary activity per d (−1.26 of 30-min blocks, P = .05), portion control (1.03, 1–5-point range, P = .01), unhealthy wt control behaviors (13.7%, P = .02), and body and/or self-image (body satisfaction 1.06, 5–20-point range, P = .04; self-worth 0.85, 5–20-point range, P = .03) 
Pakpour et al37  RCT N = 357, aged 14–18 y; 40% girls Iran Pediatric outpatient clinic MI training: 48–51 h in person; MI fidelity: random audio recordings coded, scores met proficiency for all but 1 category; intervention: MI-based counseling with nutrition and PA education with the addition of PI; control: passive control group MI groups: 6 weekly 40-min sessions, MI plus parent group received an additional 60-min session; follow-up: 12 mo (1) anthropometry (BMI, BMI z score, body fat, bioelectrical impedance, waist circumference), (2) cardiometabolic (total cholesterol, triglycerides), (3) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA, accelerometer), (4) quality of life (self-reported) In favor of MI + PI in cholesterol (0.13 mmol/L, P = .02), triglycerides (0.16 mmol/L, P = .001), BMI (2.05, P = .01), and BMI z score (2.58, P = .02); PA (P = .001); self-reported dietary and PA measures significant for all but vegetables and milk; quality of life significant for all but social functioning and total score. In favor of MI plus parent versus MI (P = .05) 
Pollak et al38  Pre/post N = 30, ages 12–18 y; 63% girls, 27% white, 73% African American United States General pediatric, family practice primary care MI training: online learning modules; MI fidelity: audio recordings coded, scores indicated low-to-moderate proficiency; intervention: MI-based discussions with nutrition and PA education 1 session, mean 6.0 min; follow-up: 1 mo (1) anthropometry (wt), (2) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA) When physicians had a higher MI spirit score, patients reported reduced subjective wt (P = .02). 
Resnicow et al13  RCT N = 147, aged 12–16 y; African American girls United States Churches MI training: 16 h plus ongoing supervision; MI fidelity: not reported; intervention: high-intensity weekly group behavioral sessions with exercise, nutrition and PA education, MI-based telephone calls, 2-way pagers with reminder messages; control: moderate-intensity monthly sessions with nutrition and PA education High intensity: 24–26 sessions, parents participated in ∼12, plus 4–6 20–30-min telephone calls; moderate intensity control: 6 sessions, parents participated in ∼3; follow-up: 6 and 12 mo (1) anthropometry (wt, BMI, waist and hip circumference, body fat), (2) cardiometabolic (total cholesterol, glucose, insulin), (3) fitness (20-m shuttle run) No differences overall. Girls who attended >3 quarters of the sessions had significantly lower BMI (P = .01) in the high-intensity group. 
Tucker et al39 a Quasi- experimental N = 130, aged 4–18 y (33% aged 12–18); 44% girls, 80% white United States Pediatric clinic MI training: 3 d; MI fidelity: not reported; intervention: child-parent dyads, standard care (review BMI at well-child visit) plus MI sessions with nutrition and PA education, phone sessions; control: standard care (review BMI at well-child visit) 1 30-min (average) session, 4 weekly phone sessions; 1- and 6-mo session, periodic phone sessions; follow-up: 12 mo (1) anthropometry (BMI, BMI percentile), (2) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA) No differences in anthropometrics. In favor of MI in self-reported fruit and/or vegetable intake (P < .001), PA (P = .004), and screen time (P = .035). 
Walpole et al40  RCT N = 40, aged 10–18 y, 57% girls, 65% white Canada Pediatric outpatient clinic MI training: in person by MINT trainer, ongoing supervision; MI fidelity: feedback of audio recordings, subsample coded, met proficiency on several categories; intervention: MI-based counseling with nutrition and PA education; control: education on social skills 6 30-min (average) sessions; follow-up: 6 mo (1) anthropometry (BMI, BMI z score, waist circumference) No differences overall. MI group attended more sessions (P = .054). Self-efficacy improved (P = .004) in both groups over time. 
StudyDesignParticipantsCountryIntervention CharacteristicsOutcomesMain Findings
SettingDescriptionDose
Ball et al25  RCT N = 46, aged 12–18 y; 61% girls; 85% white Canada Multidisciplinary pediatric wt management clinic MI training: 2 d in person; MI fidelity: not reported; intervention: nutrition and PA education, self-monitoring, with the addition of MI and CBT; Control: wait list 16 45–60-min sessions; follow-up: 16–20 wk (1) anthropometry (wt, BMI, BMI z score, BMI percentile, waist circumference), (2) cardiometabolic (total cholesterol, insulin, glucose), (3) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA; pedometers, fitness, treadmill) No differences overall. Completers only had 3.9% and 6.5% decrease in BMI z score compared with 0.8% increase in control (P < .001) 
Brennan26  RCT N = 63, aged 11–19 y; 54% girls Australia Psychology clinics MI training: international training not described; MI fidelity: videotaped interviews coded, scores not reported; intervention: 12 CBT sessions that included nutrition and PA education, 1 CBT phone call, PI (sessions 1–7), with the addition of 1 MI session; control: wait list 1 60-min session; follow-up: 4–6 mo (1) anthropometry (wt, body fat, BMI, BMI z score, body circumference: hip, waist, upper arm, forearm); (2) fitness (cycle ergometer), metabolic rate (caloriometry); (3) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA, accelerometer) No differences overall 
Chahal et al27  RCT N = 32, aged 10–17; 38% girls Canada Pediatric outpatient clinic MI training: 2, 3-d in person; MI fidelity: MI Network of Trainers and clinical psychologist provided ongoing feedback, random audio recordings coding indicating high fidelity; intervention: nutrition and PA education to child-parent dyads; control: nutrition and PA education to child alone 4 30–45-min sessions plus 4 follow-up phone calls; follow-up: 6 mo (1) anthropometry (wt, waist circumference, wt-to-height ratio, BMI), (2) cardiometabolic (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, glucose, non–HDL-C, insulin, HOMA-IR), (3) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA, accelerometer), (4) quality of life (self-reported) No differences in anthropometry or cardiometabolic. In favor of alone group in self-reported fats and/or sugars (P = .02) and screen time (P = .02); both groups had reductions in BMI (P < .001), waist circumference (P < .001), total cholesterol (P < .001), LDL-C (P < .001), triglycerides (P = .01), non–HDL-C (P < .001), insulin (P = .01), and HOMA-IR (P = .02) and improvements in dietary and/or PA and quality of life 
Christie et al28  RCT N = 174, aged 12–19 y; 63% girls England Local community settings MI training: 2 d in person plus 3 d training on obesity; MI fidelity: psychologist observed each provider deliver session 1, remaining sessions audio recorded and coded, 76% rated good; intervention: MI family (PI)-based nutrition and PA education with solution-focused behavior change approach; control: enhanced standard of care (Department of Health nutrition and PA education) 12 40–45-min sessions; follow-up: 6.5 and 13 mo; control: 1 60-min session (1) anthropometry (wt, BMI, BMI z score, waist circumference, fat mass), (2) cardiometabolic (triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, insulin, glucose), (3) behavioral (acceloerometry); (4) quality of life (self-reported), psychological health No differences overall 
Christison et al29 a Pre/post N = 18 of 100 total (18% aged 12–16 y); 55% girls; 55% white United States Pediatric primary care MI training: 2, 1.5 h in person; MI fidelity: 1 random encounter per provider, audio recording coded, scores not reported; intervention: MI-based coaching tool that included nutrition and PA education with goal setting with child-parent dyad 1 session; follow-up: 1 and 6 mo (1) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA), (2) anthropometry (BMI) No differences in anthropometrics. In favor of MI in reported dietary and/or PA goals overall (P < .001); 7 of 18 reported meeting goals most to almost always; patient motivation high in MI-adherent providers (P = .04). 
Davis et al30  RCT N = 38, aged 14–16 y; Latina girls United States Lifestyle intervention laboratory MI training: 1 in person plus 4 group trainings by MINT trainers, ongoing coaching; MI fidelity: subsample of audio recordings coded, global ratings met proficiency on average overall; intervention: PA circuit training (education, exercise) plus the addition of MI; control: wait list Circuit training: 2× per wk; circuit training plus 4 MI sessions; follow-up: 16 wk (1) anthropometry (wt, BMI, BMI percentile, hip and waist circumference, body fat), (2) cardiometabolic (glucose, HOMA-IR), (3) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA); fitness (treadmill) No differences overall. Circuit training with or without MI intervention groups compared with controls significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness (15%, 16%, P = .03). 
Gourlan et al31  RCT N = 54, aged 11–18 y; 41% girls France Hospital MI training: 32 h in person, 40 h reading; MI fidelity: random audio recordings coded, scores above proficiency except 1 category; intervention: standard wt loss program (PA education) plus the addition of MI; control: standard wt loss program (PA education) Both groups received 2 30-min sessions; MI: 6 additional 20-min MI phone sessions; follow-up: 3 and 6 mo (1) behavioral (self-reported PA, accelerometer); (2) anthropometry (BMI) No differences overall. In favor of MI in BMI at 3 mo (−1 point, P < .001), no differences at 6 mo; greater PA length over time (∼0.25 and 0.5 h/d at 3 mo [P < .001] and 6 mo [P < .01]) and energy expenditure (∼10 and 25 kcal/d at 3 mo [P < .001] and 6 mo [P < .01]). 
Kong et al32  RCT N = 60, aged 13–16 y; 62% girls; 75% Hispanic United States 2 urban, school-based health centers MI training: 2 d in person; MI fidelity: 3 pilot MI sessions audio recorded, reviewed with trainers, coaching throughout, coding not reported; intervention: standard of care (nutrition and PA education) with MI-based sessions, parent telephone updates; control: standard of care (nutrition and PA education) 8 28-min (average) sessions; control: 1 47-min (average) visit, review medical results; follow-up: 7 mo (1) anthropometry (wt, BMI, BMI percentile, waist circumference), (2) cardiometabolic (glucose, HDL-C, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR), (3) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA, accelerometer) In favor of MI in BMI percentile (−0.3%, P = .04), waist circumference (0 cm, P = .04, control +1.7 cm), sedentary behaviors (television watching −0.4 h/d, P = .04) 
Love-Osbourne et al33  RCT N = 165, aged 14–17 y; 52% girls; 88% Hispanic United States 2 school-based health centers MI training: full d in person with 1 follow-up session; MI fidelity: not reported; intervention: standard of care (physical examination, laboratory screening) with MI-based sessions with nutrition and PA education, weekly self-monitoring logs, text message reminders to random sample; control: standard of care (physical examination, laboratory screening) 1–8 sessions (mean = 5); follow-up: 6–8 mo (1) cardiometabolic (total cholesterol hemoglobin A1c, ALT), (2) anthropometry (BMI, BMI z score, BMI percentile), (3) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA); fitness testing (endurance run) No differences overall 
MacDonnell et al34  RCT N = 44, aged 13–17 y; 79% girls, African American United States Urban adolescent medicine clinic MI training: 16 h in person plus weekly supervision; MI fidelity: audio recordings coded, scores not reported; intervention: MI-based counseling with nutrition and PA education with adolescent-parent dyads; control: nutrition education for adolescent-parent dyads 4 60-min sessions for both groups; follow-up: 3 mo (1) anthropometry (wt, BMI); (2) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA) No differences in anthropometrics. In favor of MI self-reported fast food use per wk (−1.07 times per wk, P = .02), soft drink frequency per wk (−0.75 on 6-point Likert scale, P = .04), activity motivation (+7.79 on 1–7-point scale for 11 items, P = .03), but decreased activity 
Maggio et al35  Cohort N = 283, aged 3–17 y, (36% >12 y); 51% girls France Pediatric obesity care program MI training: 3 d (MI and CBT); MI fidelity: not reported; intervention: MI-based discussions with nutrition and PA education plus goal setting with child-parent dyads, psychological therapy for mental health problems as needed First session 1-h, follow-up sessions 30–45-min, 1–3 mo intervals between sessions, mean sessions 4.6; follow-up: mean 11.4 mo (1) anthropometry (BMI, BMI z scores) No differences overall 
Neumark-Sztainer et al36  RCT N = 356 girls, aged 14–16 y; >75% racial and/or ethnic minorities United States 12 urban high schools MI training: full d in person plus ongoing support; MI fidelity: not reported; intervention: all girls’ PA (exercise) education class first school y semester plus MI-based counseling with nutrition education and self-empowerment over school y, lunch meetings, 6 postcards reinforcing curriculum mailed home to parents; control: all girls’ PA education class during first school y semester 5–7 sessions during physical education class; follow-up: 16 wk (1) anthropometry (BMI, percent of body fat); (2) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA) No differences in anthropometrics. In favor of MI in reported sedentary activity per d (−1.26 of 30-min blocks, P = .05), portion control (1.03, 1–5-point range, P = .01), unhealthy wt control behaviors (13.7%, P = .02), and body and/or self-image (body satisfaction 1.06, 5–20-point range, P = .04; self-worth 0.85, 5–20-point range, P = .03) 
Pakpour et al37  RCT N = 357, aged 14–18 y; 40% girls Iran Pediatric outpatient clinic MI training: 48–51 h in person; MI fidelity: random audio recordings coded, scores met proficiency for all but 1 category; intervention: MI-based counseling with nutrition and PA education with the addition of PI; control: passive control group MI groups: 6 weekly 40-min sessions, MI plus parent group received an additional 60-min session; follow-up: 12 mo (1) anthropometry (BMI, BMI z score, body fat, bioelectrical impedance, waist circumference), (2) cardiometabolic (total cholesterol, triglycerides), (3) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA, accelerometer), (4) quality of life (self-reported) In favor of MI + PI in cholesterol (0.13 mmol/L, P = .02), triglycerides (0.16 mmol/L, P = .001), BMI (2.05, P = .01), and BMI z score (2.58, P = .02); PA (P = .001); self-reported dietary and PA measures significant for all but vegetables and milk; quality of life significant for all but social functioning and total score. In favor of MI plus parent versus MI (P = .05) 
Pollak et al38  Pre/post N = 30, ages 12–18 y; 63% girls, 27% white, 73% African American United States General pediatric, family practice primary care MI training: online learning modules; MI fidelity: audio recordings coded, scores indicated low-to-moderate proficiency; intervention: MI-based discussions with nutrition and PA education 1 session, mean 6.0 min; follow-up: 1 mo (1) anthropometry (wt), (2) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA) When physicians had a higher MI spirit score, patients reported reduced subjective wt (P = .02). 
Resnicow et al13  RCT N = 147, aged 12–16 y; African American girls United States Churches MI training: 16 h plus ongoing supervision; MI fidelity: not reported; intervention: high-intensity weekly group behavioral sessions with exercise, nutrition and PA education, MI-based telephone calls, 2-way pagers with reminder messages; control: moderate-intensity monthly sessions with nutrition and PA education High intensity: 24–26 sessions, parents participated in ∼12, plus 4–6 20–30-min telephone calls; moderate intensity control: 6 sessions, parents participated in ∼3; follow-up: 6 and 12 mo (1) anthropometry (wt, BMI, waist and hip circumference, body fat), (2) cardiometabolic (total cholesterol, glucose, insulin), (3) fitness (20-m shuttle run) No differences overall. Girls who attended >3 quarters of the sessions had significantly lower BMI (P = .01) in the high-intensity group. 
Tucker et al39 a Quasi- experimental N = 130, aged 4–18 y (33% aged 12–18); 44% girls, 80% white United States Pediatric clinic MI training: 3 d; MI fidelity: not reported; intervention: child-parent dyads, standard care (review BMI at well-child visit) plus MI sessions with nutrition and PA education, phone sessions; control: standard care (review BMI at well-child visit) 1 30-min (average) session, 4 weekly phone sessions; 1- and 6-mo session, periodic phone sessions; follow-up: 12 mo (1) anthropometry (BMI, BMI percentile), (2) behavioral (self-reported dietary and/or PA) No differences in anthropometrics. In favor of MI in self-reported fruit and/or vegetable intake (P < .001), PA (P = .004), and screen time (P = .035). 
Walpole et al40  RCT N = 40, aged 10–18 y, 57% girls, 65% white Canada Pediatric outpatient clinic MI training: in person by MINT trainer, ongoing supervision; MI fidelity: feedback of audio recordings, subsample coded, met proficiency on several categories; intervention: MI-based counseling with nutrition and PA education; control: education on social skills 6 30-min (average) sessions; follow-up: 6 mo (1) anthropometry (BMI, BMI z score, waist circumference) No differences overall. MI group attended more sessions (P = .054). Self-efficacy improved (P = .004) in both groups over time. 

ALT, alanine aminotransferase; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MINT, motivational interviewing network of trainers; PA, physical activity; PI, parent involvement.

a

Adolescent-specific data received from author.

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