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TABLE 3

Logistic Regression of Parent and Adolescent Characteristics on Adolescent Lifetime Use of NMPOs (2004–2012 NSDUH)

Characteristics OR (95% CI), (n = 35 000) aOR (95% CI), (n = 35 000)
Parents   
 Age 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 
 Mothers (versus fathers) 1.05 (0.93–1.19) 1.02 (0.89–1.17) 
 Education (versus college graduate)   
  Some college 1.39 (1.16–1.68)*** 1.09 (0.89–1.34) 
  High school graduate or less 1.64 (1.37–1.95)*** 1.19 (0.97–1.46) 
 Marital status (versus married)   
  Widowed 1.43 (0.89–2.29) 1.42 (0.82–2.46) 
  Separated or divorced 1.50 (1.26–1.78)*** 1.08 (0.90–1.31) 
  Never married 1.16 (0.94–1.42) 0.94 (0.72–1.22) 
 Lifetime substance use (versus never)   
  NMPOs 1.84 (1.58–2.15)*** 1.30 (1.09–1.56)** 
  Smoking 1.76 (1.51–2.05)*** 1.24 (1.02–1.51)* 
  Alcohol 1.63 (1.31–2.03)*** 1.23 (0.93–1.63) 
  Marijuana 1.65 (1.45–1.89)*** 1.13 (0.93–1.36) 
  OIDsa 1.76 (1.54–2.01)*** 1.18 (0.98–1.41) 
 Perceived risk of drug useb 0.86 (0.82–0.91)*** 0.93 (0.87–1.00)* 
 Lifetime depression (versus never) 1.38 (1.16–1.65)*** 1.04 (0.85–1.26) 
 Perceived parenting by child (past 12 mo)b   
  Lack of monitoring 1.59 (1.50–1.68)*** 1.21 (1.12–1.31)*** 
  Lack of support 1.43 (1.35–1.51)*** 1.05 (0.98–1.12) 
  Conflict 1.54 (1.44–1.65)*** 1.19 (1.10–1.29)*** 
Adolescents   
 Age 1.34 (1.28–1.39)*** 1.27 (1.21–1.34)*** 
 Boys (versus girls) 0.92 (0.80–1.05) 0.89 (0.76–1.03) 
 Race and/or ethnicity (versus African American)   
  White 1.13 (0.92–1.39) 1.06 (0.83–1.36) 
  Hispanic 1.07 (0.84–1.36) 1.08 (0.81–1.43) 
  Other 0.83 (0.60–1.16) 0.97 (0.67–1.40) 
 Religiosityb 0.71 (0.67–0.76)*** 0.92 (0.86–0.99)* 
 Initiated other drug before NMPO (versus same age, after, or did not use)   
  Cigarettes 3.01 (2.64–3.43)*** 1.37 (1.14–1.65)*** 
  Alcohol 1.65 (1.46–1.87)*** 0.47 (0.39–0.55)*** 
  Marijuana 3.03 (2.63–3.50)*** 1.25 (1.02–1.53)* 
  OIDsa 3.66 (2.72–4.93)*** 0.98 (0.63–1.51) 
 Perceived risk of drug useb 0.71 (0.68–0.75)*** 0.77 (0.72–0.82)*** 
 Perceived drug use of schoolmates (versus none or some use)c   
  Most or all use 3.54 (3.04–4.11)*** 1.71 (1.44–2.04)*** 
 Delinquency (past 12 mo)b 1.72 (1.63–1.80)*** 1.50 (1.42–1.59)*** 
 Lifetime depression (versus never) 2.83 (2.43–3.29)*** 1.62 (1.37–1.93)*** 
Characteristics OR (95% CI), (n = 35 000) aOR (95% CI), (n = 35 000)
Parents   
 Age 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 
 Mothers (versus fathers) 1.05 (0.93–1.19) 1.02 (0.89–1.17) 
 Education (versus college graduate)   
  Some college 1.39 (1.16–1.68)*** 1.09 (0.89–1.34) 
  High school graduate or less 1.64 (1.37–1.95)*** 1.19 (0.97–1.46) 
 Marital status (versus married)   
  Widowed 1.43 (0.89–2.29) 1.42 (0.82–2.46) 
  Separated or divorced 1.50 (1.26–1.78)*** 1.08 (0.90–1.31) 
  Never married 1.16 (0.94–1.42) 0.94 (0.72–1.22) 
 Lifetime substance use (versus never)   
  NMPOs 1.84 (1.58–2.15)*** 1.30 (1.09–1.56)** 
  Smoking 1.76 (1.51–2.05)*** 1.24 (1.02–1.51)* 
  Alcohol 1.63 (1.31–2.03)*** 1.23 (0.93–1.63) 
  Marijuana 1.65 (1.45–1.89)*** 1.13 (0.93–1.36) 
  OIDsa 1.76 (1.54–2.01)*** 1.18 (0.98–1.41) 
 Perceived risk of drug useb 0.86 (0.82–0.91)*** 0.93 (0.87–1.00)* 
 Lifetime depression (versus never) 1.38 (1.16–1.65)*** 1.04 (0.85–1.26) 
 Perceived parenting by child (past 12 mo)b   
  Lack of monitoring 1.59 (1.50–1.68)*** 1.21 (1.12–1.31)*** 
  Lack of support 1.43 (1.35–1.51)*** 1.05 (0.98–1.12) 
  Conflict 1.54 (1.44–1.65)*** 1.19 (1.10–1.29)*** 
Adolescents   
 Age 1.34 (1.28–1.39)*** 1.27 (1.21–1.34)*** 
 Boys (versus girls) 0.92 (0.80–1.05) 0.89 (0.76–1.03) 
 Race and/or ethnicity (versus African American)   
  White 1.13 (0.92–1.39) 1.06 (0.83–1.36) 
  Hispanic 1.07 (0.84–1.36) 1.08 (0.81–1.43) 
  Other 0.83 (0.60–1.16) 0.97 (0.67–1.40) 
 Religiosityb 0.71 (0.67–0.76)*** 0.92 (0.86–0.99)* 
 Initiated other drug before NMPO (versus same age, after, or did not use)   
  Cigarettes 3.01 (2.64–3.43)*** 1.37 (1.14–1.65)*** 
  Alcohol 1.65 (1.46–1.87)*** 0.47 (0.39–0.55)*** 
  Marijuana 3.03 (2.63–3.50)*** 1.25 (1.02–1.53)* 
  OIDsa 3.66 (2.72–4.93)*** 0.98 (0.63–1.51) 
 Perceived risk of drug useb 0.71 (0.68–0.75)*** 0.77 (0.72–0.82)*** 
 Perceived drug use of schoolmates (versus none or some use)c   
  Most or all use 3.54 (3.04–4.11)*** 1.71 (1.44–2.04)*** 
 Delinquency (past 12 mo)b 1.72 (1.63–1.80)*** 1.50 (1.42–1.59)*** 
 Lifetime depression (versus never) 2.83 (2.43–3.29)*** 1.62 (1.37–1.93)*** 

Weighted estimates.

a

Cocaine, crack, heroin, or hallucinogens.

b

Standardized scores.

c

Smoking, alcohol, or marijuana.

*

P < .05; ** P < .01; *** P < .001.

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