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TABLE 1

State-Level Demographic and Anthropometric Characteristics of Participants in the WIC, 2000–2014

200020042008201020122014P
Prevalence of obesity among 2-to 4-y-old WIC participants, mean (SD) 12.92 (2.40) 14.80 (2.38) 15.13 (2.19) 15.24 (2.24) 14.51 (2.27) 14.24 (2.27) <.001 
Race and/or ethnicity, %,a mean (SD)        
 American Indian  3.14 (7.58) 3.27 (7.85) 3.62 (8.27) 3.50 (7.93) 3.63 (7.92) 3.56 (7.64) .999 
 Asian American or Pacific Islander 2.10 (2.18) 2.25 (2.13) 2.35 (2.15) 2.61 (2.25) 2.94 (2.33) 3.37 (2.52) .056 
 African American 21.29 (18.82) 19.82 (7.03) 19.37 (15.42) 19.19 (14.70) 19.95 (4.85) 20.75 (14.97) .986 
 Hispanic 20.67 (20.34) 25.22 (21.39) 29.94 (22.15) 30.91 (21.33) 30.79 (20.81) 30.65 (20.37) .086 
 White 52.79 (21.98) 49.44 (21.87) 44.72 (20.90) 43.79 (20.21) 42.70 (19.62) 41.67 (19.25) .059 
WIC-participating children with high birth wt, %,b mean (SD) 13.22 (2.38) 7.17 (1.78) 6.49 (1.44) 6.62 (1.59) 6.43 (1.76) 6.41 (1.68) <.001 
WIC-participating women with high prepregnancy BMI, %,c mean (SD) 21.95 (3.50) 26.22 (2.91) 28.55 (3.33) 29.96 (3.12) 30.66 (4.39) 32.22 (4.31) <.001 
Children in poverty, %,d mean (SD) 15.83 (4.36) 14.92 (3.98) 14.14 (3.91) 14.39 (4.01) 14.81 (3.99) 14.97 (4.12) .412 
Total No. 2-to 4-y-old WIC participants  2 253 471 2 550 533 2 790 527 3 206 995 3 152 137 2 915 253 — 
200020042008201020122014P
Prevalence of obesity among 2-to 4-y-old WIC participants, mean (SD) 12.92 (2.40) 14.80 (2.38) 15.13 (2.19) 15.24 (2.24) 14.51 (2.27) 14.24 (2.27) <.001 
Race and/or ethnicity, %,a mean (SD)        
 American Indian  3.14 (7.58) 3.27 (7.85) 3.62 (8.27) 3.50 (7.93) 3.63 (7.92) 3.56 (7.64) .999 
 Asian American or Pacific Islander 2.10 (2.18) 2.25 (2.13) 2.35 (2.15) 2.61 (2.25) 2.94 (2.33) 3.37 (2.52) .056 
 African American 21.29 (18.82) 19.82 (7.03) 19.37 (15.42) 19.19 (14.70) 19.95 (4.85) 20.75 (14.97) .986 
 Hispanic 20.67 (20.34) 25.22 (21.39) 29.94 (22.15) 30.91 (21.33) 30.79 (20.81) 30.65 (20.37) .086 
 White 52.79 (21.98) 49.44 (21.87) 44.72 (20.90) 43.79 (20.21) 42.70 (19.62) 41.67 (19.25) .059 
WIC-participating children with high birth wt, %,b mean (SD) 13.22 (2.38) 7.17 (1.78) 6.49 (1.44) 6.62 (1.59) 6.43 (1.76) 6.41 (1.68) <.001 
WIC-participating women with high prepregnancy BMI, %,c mean (SD) 21.95 (3.50) 26.22 (2.91) 28.55 (3.33) 29.96 (3.12) 30.66 (4.39) 32.22 (4.31) <.001 
Children in poverty, %,d mean (SD) 15.83 (4.36) 14.92 (3.98) 14.14 (3.91) 14.39 (4.01) 14.81 (3.99) 14.97 (4.12) .412 
Total No. 2-to 4-y-old WIC participants  2 253 471 2 550 533 2 790 527 3 206 995 3 152 137 2 915 253 — 

Included were 49 states, excluding Hawaii. P values are from analysis of variance tests of differences in means. —, not applicable.

a

Demographic makeup is presented as the number of children with race reported in each category as a percentage of (for 2000 and 2004) all 1- to 4-y-old children enrolled in the WIC or (for 2008–2014) all 2- to 4-y-old WIC participants as a percentage of all children for whom a race in the 5 categories was reported.

b

The percentage of WIC-participating 1- to 4-y-old children with birth weights between 4001 and 6000 g. This measure is reported by state and local WIC agencies and thus is missing data for some states and territories (eg, n = 29 in 2000 and n = 37 in 2014).

c

The percentage of WIC-participating pregnant women with prepregnancy BMI ≥29.1 reported with a 4-y lag. This measure is reported by state and local WIC agencies and thus is missing data for some states (eg, n = 33 in 4 years before 2000 and n = 40 4 years before 2014).

d

Rate for children ages 0 to 17 y calculated with the anchored SPM available from the Center on Poverty and Social Policy at Columbia University for all US states.19 

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