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TABLE 1

Baseline Characteristics of Children Hospitalized With Pneumonia With and Without Bacteremia

Baseline CharacteristicsNo Bacteremia, n = 2090Bacteremia, n = 46P
Age in mo, median (IQR) 28 (12–73) 27.5 (16–69) .806 
Male sex, n (%) 1136 (54) 34 (74) .008 
Race and ethnicity, n (%)   .258 
 Non-Hispanic white 805 (39) 22 (48)  
 Non-Hispanic African American 723 (35) 15 (33)  
 Hispanic 395 (19) 4 (9)  
 Other 167 (8) 5 (11)  
No. chronic comorbidities, n (%)   .191 
 0 1006 (48) 27 (59)  
 1 779 (37) 16 (35)  
 2 239 (11) 1 (2)  
 3+ 66 (3) 2 (4)  
Household smoke exposure, n (%) 731 (35) 16 (35) .956 
PCV vaccination,a,bn (%) 1320 (90) 32 (100) .067 
Temperature in Celsius, median (IQR) 37.9 (37.2–38.8) 38.2 (37.5–39.4) .064 
Altered mental status, n (%) 52 (3) 2 (4) .421 
Chest indrawing, n (%) 1128 (54) 16 (35) .012 
Asymmetric breath sounds, n (%) 1354 (65) 28 (61) .583 
Wheezing, n (%) 840 (40) 11 (24) .026 
PF ratio,c median (IQR) 451 (423–474) 462 (445–479) .033 
White blood count,d median (IQR) 12 (9–17) 16 (7–20) .406 
Procalcitonin,e median (IQR)f 0.32 (0.1–1.48) 4.1 (0.99–19.97) .001 
Viral detection, n (%) 1490 (71) 32 (70) .798 
 Respiratory syncytial virus 584 (29) 10 (22) .352 
 Rhinovirus 546 (27) 11 (26) .811 
 Human metapneumovirus 260 (13) 7 (16) .571 
 Adenovirus 221 (11) 7 (16) .311 
 Influenza A or B 140 (7) 4 (9) .251 
Radiographic infiltrate pattern, n (%)   .186 
 Consolidation, single lobar 446 (22) 15 (33)  
 Consolidation, multilobar 621 (30) 12 (26)  
 Other infiltrate 848 (41) 13 (28)  
 Mixed 151 (7) 6 (13)  
Parapneumonic effusion on CXR, n (%) 241 (12) 22 (48) <.001 
Empyema with drainage procedure, n (%) 76 (4) 8 (17) <.001 
Antibiotics before hospitalization, n (%) 528 (25) 12 (26) .926 
Inpatient antibiotics before culture, n (%) 484 (21) 4 (9) .021 
Any antibiotics before culture, n (%) 866 (41) 15 (33) .229 
Empirical antibiotics, n (%)   <.001 
 Cephalosporing 1154 (55) 12 (26)  
 Cephalosporin + vancomycin or clindamycing 356 (17) 20 (43)  
 None 308 (15) 3 (7)  
 Aminopenicillin 130 (6) 3 (7)  
 Other 142 (7) 8 (17)  
Baseline CharacteristicsNo Bacteremia, n = 2090Bacteremia, n = 46P
Age in mo, median (IQR) 28 (12–73) 27.5 (16–69) .806 
Male sex, n (%) 1136 (54) 34 (74) .008 
Race and ethnicity, n (%)   .258 
 Non-Hispanic white 805 (39) 22 (48)  
 Non-Hispanic African American 723 (35) 15 (33)  
 Hispanic 395 (19) 4 (9)  
 Other 167 (8) 5 (11)  
No. chronic comorbidities, n (%)   .191 
 0 1006 (48) 27 (59)  
 1 779 (37) 16 (35)  
 2 239 (11) 1 (2)  
 3+ 66 (3) 2 (4)  
Household smoke exposure, n (%) 731 (35) 16 (35) .956 
PCV vaccination,a,bn (%) 1320 (90) 32 (100) .067 
Temperature in Celsius, median (IQR) 37.9 (37.2–38.8) 38.2 (37.5–39.4) .064 
Altered mental status, n (%) 52 (3) 2 (4) .421 
Chest indrawing, n (%) 1128 (54) 16 (35) .012 
Asymmetric breath sounds, n (%) 1354 (65) 28 (61) .583 
Wheezing, n (%) 840 (40) 11 (24) .026 
PF ratio,c median (IQR) 451 (423–474) 462 (445–479) .033 
White blood count,d median (IQR) 12 (9–17) 16 (7–20) .406 
Procalcitonin,e median (IQR)f 0.32 (0.1–1.48) 4.1 (0.99–19.97) .001 
Viral detection, n (%) 1490 (71) 32 (70) .798 
 Respiratory syncytial virus 584 (29) 10 (22) .352 
 Rhinovirus 546 (27) 11 (26) .811 
 Human metapneumovirus 260 (13) 7 (16) .571 
 Adenovirus 221 (11) 7 (16) .311 
 Influenza A or B 140 (7) 4 (9) .251 
Radiographic infiltrate pattern, n (%)   .186 
 Consolidation, single lobar 446 (22) 15 (33)  
 Consolidation, multilobar 621 (30) 12 (26)  
 Other infiltrate 848 (41) 13 (28)  
 Mixed 151 (7) 6 (13)  
Parapneumonic effusion on CXR, n (%) 241 (12) 22 (48) <.001 
Empyema with drainage procedure, n (%) 76 (4) 8 (17) <.001 
Antibiotics before hospitalization, n (%) 528 (25) 12 (26) .926 
Inpatient antibiotics before culture, n (%) 484 (21) 4 (9) .021 
Any antibiotics before culture, n (%) 866 (41) 15 (33) .229 
Empirical antibiotics, n (%)   <.001 
 Cephalosporing 1154 (55) 12 (26)  
 Cephalosporin + vancomycin or clindamycing 356 (17) 20 (43)  
 None 308 (15) 3 (7)  
 Aminopenicillin 130 (6) 3 (7)  
 Other 142 (7) 8 (17)  

CXR, chest radiograph.

a

Children age 9 mo to 12 y of age that received ≥3 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

b

Sample size: no bacteremia, n = 1469; bacteremia, n = 32.

c

Estimated from the P/F (Pao2Fio2) ratio.

d

Cells × 103 per mm3.

e

Nanograms per milliliter.

f

Sample size: no bacteremia, n = 486; bacteremia, n = 16.

g

With or without a macrolide.

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