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TABLE 3

Outcome Measures from the CHAT After Random Assignment

OutcomeaNormative MeanMean (95% CI)PEffect Size
Watchful WaitingEarly Adenotonsillectomy
BaselineChange From Baseline to 7 moBaselineChange From Baseline to 7 mo
NEPSY attention and executive function score (n = 390) 100 ± 15 101.0 (99.0 to 103.0) 5.1 (3.3 to 7.0) 102.0 (99.7 to 104.2) 6.9 (−4.1 to −1.2) .07 0.13 
Conners’ Rating Scale score        
 Caregiver rating (n = 385) 50 ± 10 52.5 (50.9 to 54.1) −0.4 (−1.7 to 0.93) 52.2 (50.6 to 53.9) −2.7 (−4.1 to −1.2) .001 0.23 
 Teacher rating (n = 209) NA 54.9 (52.8 to 57.0) −1.8 (−3.5 to −0.1) 55.3 (53.1 to 57.5) −5.2 (−7.1 to −3.3) .04 0.27 
BRIEF score        
 Caregiver rating (n = 385) 50 ± 10 50.0 (48.4 to 51.6) 0.3 (−0.9 to 1.5) 50.1 (48.5 to 51.6) −3.3 (−4.5 to −2.1) <.001 0.41 
 Teacher rating (n = 204) NA 56.3 (54.3 to 58.3) −0.9 (−2.6 to 0.8) 56.9 (54.8 to 59.0) −2.4 (−4.1 to −0.6) .18 0.12 
PSQ-SRBD score (n = 389) 0.2 ± 0.1 0.5 (0.5 to 0.5) 0.0 (−0.1 to −0.0) 0.5 (0.5 to 0.5) −0.3 (−0.3 to −0.3) <.001 1.35 
PedsQL score (n = 392) 78 ± 16 78.1 (76.0 to 80.2) 0.8 (−1.0 to 2.6) 78.3 (76.1 to 80.5) 6.1 (4.0 to 8.1) <.001 0.38 
DAS-2 GCA score (n = 390) 100 ± 15 95.7 (94.1 to 97.3) 1.7 (−0.6 to 4.0) 98.6 (97.0 to 100.3) −2.0 (−4.4 to −0.3) .37 0.06 
Conners’ ADHD Index T score        
 Caregiver rating (n = 385) 50 ± 10 53.2 (51.7 to 54.8) −0.6 (−2.6 to 1.6) 52.9 (51.3 to 54.5) −2.7 (−5.0 to −0.6) .003 0.22 
 Teacher rating (n = 209) NA 54.2 (52.2 to 56.2) 0.5 (−2.3 to 3.2) 55.6 (53.5 to 57.6) −3.4 (−6.2 to −0.5) .01 0.35 
CBCL total problems T score (n = 374) 50 ± 10 53.1 (51.6 to 54.6) −0.9 (−3.1 to −1.2) 52.4 (50.8 to 54.0) −3.7 (−6.1 to −1.3) <.001 0.26 
OSA-18 score (n = 393) NA 54.1 (51.5 to 56.8) −4.6 (−8.5 to −0.8) 53.3 (50.7 to 55.8) −21.5 (−24.8 to −18.1) <.001 0.94 
ESS (n = 393) <10 7.8 (7.0 to 8.6) −0.3 (−1.3 to 0.8) 7.5 (6.7 to 8.2) −2.1 (−3.1 to −1.1) <.001 0.38 
BMI percentile (n = 391) 5–85 70.0 (65.9 to 74.2) 4.0 (−1.8 to 9.8) 70.3 (65.8 to 74.8) 6.5 (0.6 to 12.5) .02 0.21 
C-reactive protein (n = 262), μg/mL <1 2.5 (1.1 to 3.8) −0.9 (−2.3 to 0.5) 1.9 (1.4 to 2.4) 0.2 (−0.8 to 1.3) .50 0.01 
HOMA-IR (n = 261) 2.22–2.67 2.0 (1.6 to 2.4) 0.0 (−0.5 to 0.5) 1.8 (1.5 to 2.1) 0.5 (−0.1 to 1.1) .04 0.20 
Systolic blood pressure (n = 391), mm Hg NA 97.8 (96.7 to 99.0) 0.8 (−0.8 to 2.5) 96.6 (95.3 to 98.0) 1.2 (−0.6 to 3.1) .56 0.06 
Diastolic blood pressure (n = 391), mm Hg NA 62.4 (61.3 to 63.4) 0.7 (−0.9 to 2.2) 62.1 (60.9 to 63.2) 1.1 (−0.5 to 2.7) .81 0.05 
OutcomeaNormative MeanMean (95% CI)PEffect Size
Watchful WaitingEarly Adenotonsillectomy
BaselineChange From Baseline to 7 moBaselineChange From Baseline to 7 mo
NEPSY attention and executive function score (n = 390) 100 ± 15 101.0 (99.0 to 103.0) 5.1 (3.3 to 7.0) 102.0 (99.7 to 104.2) 6.9 (−4.1 to −1.2) .07 0.13 
Conners’ Rating Scale score        
 Caregiver rating (n = 385) 50 ± 10 52.5 (50.9 to 54.1) −0.4 (−1.7 to 0.93) 52.2 (50.6 to 53.9) −2.7 (−4.1 to −1.2) .001 0.23 
 Teacher rating (n = 209) NA 54.9 (52.8 to 57.0) −1.8 (−3.5 to −0.1) 55.3 (53.1 to 57.5) −5.2 (−7.1 to −3.3) .04 0.27 
BRIEF score        
 Caregiver rating (n = 385) 50 ± 10 50.0 (48.4 to 51.6) 0.3 (−0.9 to 1.5) 50.1 (48.5 to 51.6) −3.3 (−4.5 to −2.1) <.001 0.41 
 Teacher rating (n = 204) NA 56.3 (54.3 to 58.3) −0.9 (−2.6 to 0.8) 56.9 (54.8 to 59.0) −2.4 (−4.1 to −0.6) .18 0.12 
PSQ-SRBD score (n = 389) 0.2 ± 0.1 0.5 (0.5 to 0.5) 0.0 (−0.1 to −0.0) 0.5 (0.5 to 0.5) −0.3 (−0.3 to −0.3) <.001 1.35 
PedsQL score (n = 392) 78 ± 16 78.1 (76.0 to 80.2) 0.8 (−1.0 to 2.6) 78.3 (76.1 to 80.5) 6.1 (4.0 to 8.1) <.001 0.38 
DAS-2 GCA score (n = 390) 100 ± 15 95.7 (94.1 to 97.3) 1.7 (−0.6 to 4.0) 98.6 (97.0 to 100.3) −2.0 (−4.4 to −0.3) .37 0.06 
Conners’ ADHD Index T score        
 Caregiver rating (n = 385) 50 ± 10 53.2 (51.7 to 54.8) −0.6 (−2.6 to 1.6) 52.9 (51.3 to 54.5) −2.7 (−5.0 to −0.6) .003 0.22 
 Teacher rating (n = 209) NA 54.2 (52.2 to 56.2) 0.5 (−2.3 to 3.2) 55.6 (53.5 to 57.6) −3.4 (−6.2 to −0.5) .01 0.35 
CBCL total problems T score (n = 374) 50 ± 10 53.1 (51.6 to 54.6) −0.9 (−3.1 to −1.2) 52.4 (50.8 to 54.0) −3.7 (−6.1 to −1.3) <.001 0.26 
OSA-18 score (n = 393) NA 54.1 (51.5 to 56.8) −4.6 (−8.5 to −0.8) 53.3 (50.7 to 55.8) −21.5 (−24.8 to −18.1) <.001 0.94 
ESS (n = 393) <10 7.8 (7.0 to 8.6) −0.3 (−1.3 to 0.8) 7.5 (6.7 to 8.2) −2.1 (−3.1 to −1.1) <.001 0.38 
BMI percentile (n = 391) 5–85 70.0 (65.9 to 74.2) 4.0 (−1.8 to 9.8) 70.3 (65.8 to 74.8) 6.5 (0.6 to 12.5) .02 0.21 
C-reactive protein (n = 262), μg/mL <1 2.5 (1.1 to 3.8) −0.9 (−2.3 to 0.5) 1.9 (1.4 to 2.4) 0.2 (−0.8 to 1.3) .50 0.01 
HOMA-IR (n = 261) 2.22–2.67 2.0 (1.6 to 2.4) 0.0 (−0.5 to 0.5) 1.8 (1.5 to 2.1) 0.5 (−0.1 to 1.1) .04 0.20 
Systolic blood pressure (n = 391), mm Hg NA 97.8 (96.7 to 99.0) 0.8 (−0.8 to 2.5) 96.6 (95.3 to 98.0) 1.2 (−0.6 to 3.1) .56 0.06 
Diastolic blood pressure (n = 391), mm Hg NA 62.4 (61.3 to 63.4) 0.7 (−0.9 to 2.2) 62.1 (60.9 to 63.2) 1.1 (−0.5 to 2.7) .81 0.05 

ADHD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; DAS-2 GCA, Differential Ability Scales–Second Edition (General Conceptual Ability); NA, not available.

a

Outcome variables included scores on the NEPSY, the Conners’ Behavior Rating Scales, and the BRIEF, with summary measures obtained from the primary caregiver and the teacher, the PSQ-SRBD, and the PedsQL. These were reported in the original study. Additional outcome variables included scores on the DAS-2 GCA, the Conners’ ADHD Index T scores obtained from the primary caregiver and the teacher, the CBCL, the OSA-18 inventory, and the modified ESS. T scores provide information about a child’s score relative to the reference sample. Physiologic outcomes were represented by changes in BMI percentile score, C-reactive protein values, HOMA-IR, and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Population means along with SDs are provided where normative data are available. All other values are reported as means and 95% CIs. P values are adjusted for effects of age, race, and wt. Effect size is calculated by the Cohen’s d values and follows the following conventions: 0.20–0.49 (small), 0.50–0.79 (medium), and ≥0.80 (large). Numbers in parentheses listed in the outcome column represent sample sizes of complete data sets. P < .05 was considered significant. A complete description of each outcome is provided in Table 1.

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