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TABLE 1

Characteristics According to CDA

CDA at the Age of 6 y
No CDA (n = 3664)CDA (n = 51)Pa
Child characteristics    
 Age at research center visit, median (range), y 6.0 (4.9−90) 6.0 (5.6−8.2) .90 
 Female sex, n (%) 1755 (47.9) 33 (64.7) .02 
 BMI, median (range) 15.82 (12.04−27.65) 15.40 (12.99−19.45) .01 
 Wt, median (range), kg 23.4 (13.0−56.0) 21.0 (16.0−35.6) .00 
 Height, mean (SD), cm 119.5 (5.9) 118.0 (6.3) .07 
 BMI for age SDS, mean (SD) 0.26 (0.9) −0.03 (0.8) .02 
 Birth wt, median (range), g 3460 (635−5270) 3520 (1810−4750) .75 
 HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 positivity (yes), n (%) 1492 (40.7) 47 (92.2) .00 
 Western ethnicity, n (%) 2533 (69.1) 42 (82.4) .04 
 Gastrointestinal complaints (yes), n (%)    
  Obstipation 702 (19.2) 6 (11.8) .20 
  Diarrhea 114 (3.1) 2 (3.9) .65 
  Abdominal pain 4S4 (13.2) 6 (11.8) .57 
Maternal characteristics    
 Income ≥€2200, n (%) 2173 (59.3) 38 (74.5) .05 
 High educational level, n (%) 1853 (50.6) 33 (64.7) .06 
 TG2A titers with positive results during second trimester, n (%) 12 (0.4) 1 (2.8) .04 
  Unknown antibody titers 896 15 — 
CDA at the Age of 6 y
No CDA (n = 3664)CDA (n = 51)Pa
Child characteristics    
 Age at research center visit, median (range), y 6.0 (4.9−90) 6.0 (5.6−8.2) .90 
 Female sex, n (%) 1755 (47.9) 33 (64.7) .02 
 BMI, median (range) 15.82 (12.04−27.65) 15.40 (12.99−19.45) .01 
 Wt, median (range), kg 23.4 (13.0−56.0) 21.0 (16.0−35.6) .00 
 Height, mean (SD), cm 119.5 (5.9) 118.0 (6.3) .07 
 BMI for age SDS, mean (SD) 0.26 (0.9) −0.03 (0.8) .02 
 Birth wt, median (range), g 3460 (635−5270) 3520 (1810−4750) .75 
 HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 positivity (yes), n (%) 1492 (40.7) 47 (92.2) .00 
 Western ethnicity, n (%) 2533 (69.1) 42 (82.4) .04 
 Gastrointestinal complaints (yes), n (%)    
  Obstipation 702 (19.2) 6 (11.8) .20 
  Diarrhea 114 (3.1) 2 (3.9) .65 
  Abdominal pain 4S4 (13.2) 6 (11.8) .57 
Maternal characteristics    
 Income ≥€2200, n (%) 2173 (59.3) 38 (74.5) .05 
 High educational level, n (%) 1853 (50.6) 33 (64.7) .06 
 TG2A titers with positive results during second trimester, n (%) 12 (0.4) 1 (2.8) .04 
  Unknown antibody titers 896 15 — 

—, not applicable.

a

Differences in subject characteristics between the groups were evaluated by using t tests and Mann–Whitney U tests for continuous variables and χ2 tests for categorical variables.

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