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TABLE 2

FDA-Approved NNSs

Type (Approval Distinction)Commercial NameKcal/gSweetness Compared With SucroseIntroduction and/or FDA ApprovalHeating Reduces SweetnessContraindication and/or Safety Issues
Saccharin (1,2- benzisothiazolin-3-1, 1,1-dioxide) (food additive) Sweet’N Low, Sugar Twin, Necta Sweet 200–700 Introduced in 1879; FDA approved for use No None 
Aspartame (N-[l-α- Aspartyl]-L-phe, 1-methyl ester) (food additive) NutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin 4a 180 Approved for limited use (ie, tabletop sweetener) by the FDA in 1981 and approved for general use in 1996 Yes Phenylketonuria; reported cases of thrombocytopenia (78)50  
Acesulfame potassium and/or acelsulfame potassium (potassium 6–methyl-2,2-dioxo-oxathiazin-4-folate) (food additive) Sunett, Sweet One 300 Discovered 1967; FDA approved limited use 1988 and general use (exceptions: meat and poultry) in 2003 No Associated with cancer in animals at high dose; no known association in humans 
Sucralose (1,6- Dichloro-1, 6-dideoxy-β-D- fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside) (food additive) Splenda 600 Discovered in 1976; FDA approved for limited use in 1998 and for general use in 1999 No None 
Neotame (N-[N-{3,3-dimethylbutyl}-L-α-aspartyl-L-phe 1-methyl ester]) (food additive) Newtame 7000–13 000 FDA approved for general use 2002 (exceptions: meat and poultry) No Contains phe and asp and is therefore contraindicated in those with phenylketonuria 
Stevia (1,1-dioxo-1,2-benzothiazol-3-1), GRAS Truvia, Pure Via, Enliten 200–400 Accepted as GRAS April 20, 2015 Yes None 
Advantame ([N-{3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)}-propyl-α-aspartyl]-L-phe 1-methyl ester) None 3.85 20 000 FDA approved for general use 2014 (exceptions: meat and poultry) No Determined to be safe for use in children 
Luo han guo fruit extract (GRAS) Monk Fruit in the Raw, PureLo Lo Han Sweetener Unknown 600 GRAS January 15, 2010; intended for use as a tabletop sweetener, food ingredient, and additional sweetening agent Unknown None 
Type (Approval Distinction)Commercial NameKcal/gSweetness Compared With SucroseIntroduction and/or FDA ApprovalHeating Reduces SweetnessContraindication and/or Safety Issues
Saccharin (1,2- benzisothiazolin-3-1, 1,1-dioxide) (food additive) Sweet’N Low, Sugar Twin, Necta Sweet 200–700 Introduced in 1879; FDA approved for use No None 
Aspartame (N-[l-α- Aspartyl]-L-phe, 1-methyl ester) (food additive) NutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin 4a 180 Approved for limited use (ie, tabletop sweetener) by the FDA in 1981 and approved for general use in 1996 Yes Phenylketonuria; reported cases of thrombocytopenia (78)50  
Acesulfame potassium and/or acelsulfame potassium (potassium 6–methyl-2,2-dioxo-oxathiazin-4-folate) (food additive) Sunett, Sweet One 300 Discovered 1967; FDA approved limited use 1988 and general use (exceptions: meat and poultry) in 2003 No Associated with cancer in animals at high dose; no known association in humans 
Sucralose (1,6- Dichloro-1, 6-dideoxy-β-D- fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside) (food additive) Splenda 600 Discovered in 1976; FDA approved for limited use in 1998 and for general use in 1999 No None 
Neotame (N-[N-{3,3-dimethylbutyl}-L-α-aspartyl-L-phe 1-methyl ester]) (food additive) Newtame 7000–13 000 FDA approved for general use 2002 (exceptions: meat and poultry) No Contains phe and asp and is therefore contraindicated in those with phenylketonuria 
Stevia (1,1-dioxo-1,2-benzothiazol-3-1), GRAS Truvia, Pure Via, Enliten 200–400 Accepted as GRAS April 20, 2015 Yes None 
Advantame ([N-{3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)}-propyl-α-aspartyl]-L-phe 1-methyl ester) None 3.85 20 000 FDA approved for general use 2014 (exceptions: meat and poultry) No Determined to be safe for use in children 
Luo han guo fruit extract (GRAS) Monk Fruit in the Raw, PureLo Lo Han Sweetener Unknown 600 GRAS January 15, 2010; intended for use as a tabletop sweetener, food ingredient, and additional sweetening agent Unknown None 

Adapted from AND. Scientific opinion on the safety of advantame for the proposed uses as a food additive. EFSA J. 2013;11(7):3301; Fitch C, Keim KS; Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(5):739–758; Renwick AG. Postscript on advantame–a novel high-potency low-calorie sweetener. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(suppl 1):S1; Kroger M, Meister K, Kava R. Low-calorie sweeteners and other sugar substitutes: a review of the safety issues. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2006;5:35–47; and Magnuson BA, Roberts A, Nestmann ER. Critical review of the current literature on the safety of sucralose. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017;106(pt A):324–355.

a

Although aspartame contains 4 kcal/g, little is used, and therefore, it essentially provides no extra calories.51 

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