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TABLE 3

Differences in the Receipt of Low-Value Services in Children by Payer Type, 2014 MAX and MarketScan

MeasurePublicly Insured, n = 6 951 556Privately Insured, n = 1 835 680Difference in % of Eligible Children Affected (Public Minus Private)aAME of Public Insurance Coverage (95% CI)
No. Eligible Children% of Eligible Children Affected% of Publicly Insured Children AffectedNo. Eligible Children% of Eligible Children Affected% of Privately Insured Children Affected
Screening for vitamin D deficiency 6 951 556 0.8 0.8 1 647 946 1.3 1.3 −0.4 −0.2b (−0.2 to −0.2) 
Allergy tests for eczema 164 881 2.1 0.0 36 768 2.6 0.1 −0.6 −0.4b (−0.5 to −0.2) 
RSV testing for bronchiolitis 130 526 11.8 0.2 21 973 17.4 0.2 −5.7 −1.3b (−1.8 to −0.7) 
Blood tests for simple febrile seizures 15 979 13.5 0.0 1871 16.3 0.0 −2.8 −3.4b (−5.2 to −1.6) 
Cervical cancer screening 690 563 1.6 0.2 235 911 1.9 0.3 −0.3 0.2b (1.6 to 2.7) 
Group A Streptococcus test in young children 1 244 621 11.1 2.0 273 566 12.3 2.0 −1.2 0.2b (0.2 to 0.3) 
Face or nose radiograph for head or face trauma 319 535 3.4 0.2 69 959 3.7 0.2 −0.3 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2) 
Ultrasound for cryptorchidism 11 067 29.2 0.0 1946 20.0 0.0 9.2 7.8b (5.7 to 9.9) 
Sinus imaging for acute sinusitis 316 479 0.6 0.0 119 860 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 (−0.1 to 0.04) 
Neuroimaging for simple febrile seizures 15 979 2.8 0.0 1871 3.6 0.0 −0.9 −0.8 (−1.7 to 0.1) 
Neuroimaging for headache 141 119 7.5 0.2 39 535 8.1 0.2 −0.5 −0.2 (−0.5 to 0.1) 
Cough and cold medications in young children 2 492 541 8.5 3.0 482 798 3.2 0.9 5.3 4.6b (4.5 to 4.7) 
Oral antibiotics for acute URI 1 517 072 18.8 4.1 280 128 15.0 2.5 3.8 3.9b (3.7 to 4.0) 
Oral antibiotics for acute otitis media with effusion 158 054 45.4 1.0 44 987 34.1 0.9 11.3 10.9b (10.4 to 11.4) 
Oral antibiotics for acute otitis externa 96 323 25.3 0.3 29 374 24.3 0.4 1.0 0.6b (0.1 to 1.2) 
Oral antibiotics after tonsillectomy 36 342 29.0 0.2 8326 27.5 0.1 1.5 0.4 (−0.6 to 1.5) 
Oral antibiotics for bronchiolitis 130 526 21.4 0.4 21 973 15.3 0.2 6.1 3.6b (3.0 to 4.1) 
Oral corticosteroids for bronchiolitis 130 526 24.0 0.5 21 973 18.1 0.2 6.0 5.1b (4.5 to 5.7) 
Short-acting β-agonists for bronchiolitis 130 526 24.4 0.5 21 973 28.5 0.4 −4.2 −2.3b (−3.0 to −1.7) 
Acid blockers for reflux in infants 436 878 2.8 0.2 151 552 6.3 0.6 −3.5 −3.4b (−3.6 to −3.3) 
MeasurePublicly Insured, n = 6 951 556Privately Insured, n = 1 835 680Difference in % of Eligible Children Affected (Public Minus Private)aAME of Public Insurance Coverage (95% CI)
No. Eligible Children% of Eligible Children Affected% of Publicly Insured Children AffectedNo. Eligible Children% of Eligible Children Affected% of Privately Insured Children Affected
Screening for vitamin D deficiency 6 951 556 0.8 0.8 1 647 946 1.3 1.3 −0.4 −0.2b (−0.2 to −0.2) 
Allergy tests for eczema 164 881 2.1 0.0 36 768 2.6 0.1 −0.6 −0.4b (−0.5 to −0.2) 
RSV testing for bronchiolitis 130 526 11.8 0.2 21 973 17.4 0.2 −5.7 −1.3b (−1.8 to −0.7) 
Blood tests for simple febrile seizures 15 979 13.5 0.0 1871 16.3 0.0 −2.8 −3.4b (−5.2 to −1.6) 
Cervical cancer screening 690 563 1.6 0.2 235 911 1.9 0.3 −0.3 0.2b (1.6 to 2.7) 
Group A Streptococcus test in young children 1 244 621 11.1 2.0 273 566 12.3 2.0 −1.2 0.2b (0.2 to 0.3) 
Face or nose radiograph for head or face trauma 319 535 3.4 0.2 69 959 3.7 0.2 −0.3 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2) 
Ultrasound for cryptorchidism 11 067 29.2 0.0 1946 20.0 0.0 9.2 7.8b (5.7 to 9.9) 
Sinus imaging for acute sinusitis 316 479 0.6 0.0 119 860 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 (−0.1 to 0.04) 
Neuroimaging for simple febrile seizures 15 979 2.8 0.0 1871 3.6 0.0 −0.9 −0.8 (−1.7 to 0.1) 
Neuroimaging for headache 141 119 7.5 0.2 39 535 8.1 0.2 −0.5 −0.2 (−0.5 to 0.1) 
Cough and cold medications in young children 2 492 541 8.5 3.0 482 798 3.2 0.9 5.3 4.6b (4.5 to 4.7) 
Oral antibiotics for acute URI 1 517 072 18.8 4.1 280 128 15.0 2.5 3.8 3.9b (3.7 to 4.0) 
Oral antibiotics for acute otitis media with effusion 158 054 45.4 1.0 44 987 34.1 0.9 11.3 10.9b (10.4 to 11.4) 
Oral antibiotics for acute otitis externa 96 323 25.3 0.3 29 374 24.3 0.4 1.0 0.6b (0.1 to 1.2) 
Oral antibiotics after tonsillectomy 36 342 29.0 0.2 8326 27.5 0.1 1.5 0.4 (−0.6 to 1.5) 
Oral antibiotics for bronchiolitis 130 526 21.4 0.4 21 973 15.3 0.2 6.1 3.6b (3.0 to 4.1) 
Oral corticosteroids for bronchiolitis 130 526 24.0 0.5 21 973 18.1 0.2 6.0 5.1b (4.5 to 5.7) 
Short-acting β-agonists for bronchiolitis 130 526 24.4 0.5 21 973 28.5 0.4 −4.2 −2.3b (−3.0 to −1.7) 
Acid blockers for reflux in infants 436 878 2.8 0.2 151 552 6.3 0.6 −3.5 −3.4b (−3.6 to −3.3) 

RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; URI, upper respiratory infection.

a

May not exactly equal the difference in the numbers in the third and sixth columns because of rounding.

b

Statistically significant (95% CI does not contain 0).

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