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TABLE 3

Background Characteristics at Randomization of Those Participants for Whom 18-Year Assessments Were Completed

VariableGroupControl, T2NV, T4
NResultNResult
Male sex, % Whole 435 48.3 194 49.0 
 LPRa 230 43.9 108 51.9 
Mother married, % Whole 435 1.8 194 1.0 
 LPRa 230 1.3 108 1.9 
Maternal race: African American, % Whole 435 93.6 194 90.7 
 LPRa 230 95.2 108 90.7 
Head of household employed, % Whole 434 56.5 193 49.2 
 LPRa 229 52.4 107 48.6 
Drank alcohol in last 14 d, % Whole 434 4.4 194 5.2 
 LPRa 229 5.7 108 7.4 
Smoked cigarettes in last 3 d, % Whole 434 8.5 194 10.8 
 LPRa 229 7.9 108 13.0 
Used marijuana in last 14 d, % Whole 434 1.6 194 1.0 
 LPRa 229 1.7 108 1.9 
Any sexually transmitted disease before random assignment, % Whole 432 33.3 194 37.6 
 LPRa 227 33.0 108 38.9 
Maternal age, y, mean (SD) Whole 435 18.10 (3.20) 194 18.08 (3.32) 
 LPRa 230 18.13 (3.31) 108 18.30 (3.85) 
Gestational age, wk, mean (SD) Whole 435 16.56 (5.74) 194 16.72 (5.71) 
 LPRa 230 16.39 (5.79) 108 16.68 (5.63) 
PR index,b,c y, mean (SD) Whole 434 99.87 (9.92) 194 99.36 (10.69) 
 LPRa 229 92.34 (5.80) 108 91.85 (6.71) 
Highest grade completed: mother, y, mean (SD) Whole 435 10.26 (1.88) 194 10.08 (2.04) 
 LPRa 230 9.93 (1.94) 108 9.62 (2.06) 
Discretionary annual household income (per $1000),d y, mean (SD) Whole 435 1.57 (6.99) 194 −0.18 (6.45) 
 LPRa 230 −0.19 (6.50) 108 −1.07 (6.16) 
% of census tract below poverty, y, mean (SD) Whole 435 34.85 (21.34) 194 35.30 (20.48) 
 LPRa 230 36.40 (21.08) 108 34.49 (21.31) 
Housing density,e y, mean (SD) Whole 435 0.95 (0.50) 194 1.04 (0.57) 
 LPRa 230 1.04 (0.53) 108 1.12 (0.52) 
Conflict with mother,f y, mean (SD) Whole 434 3.99 (0.90) 194 4.03 (0.74) 
 LPRa 229 4.15 (1.09) 108 4.09 (0.80) 
Conflict with partnerf Whole 434 3.97 (0.83) 194 4.07 (0.83) 
 LPRa 229 4.08 (0.96) 108 4.21 (0.96) 
Attitudes toward child-rearing predictive of CA,g y, mean (SD) Whole 435 99.88 (7.64) 194 101.08 (8.48) 
 LPRa 230 102.33 (7.06) 108 103.34 (7.70) 
Household poverty index,c,h y, mean (SD) Whole 435 99.63 (10.16) 194 102.19 (9.91) 
 LPRa 230 101.94 (10.09) 108 103.72 (9.82) 
Neighborhood disadvantage index,i y, mean (SD) Whole 435 2.33 (1.64) 194 2.38 (1.82) 
 LPRa 230 2.50 (1.60) 108 2.24 (1.72) 
VariableGroupControl, T2NV, T4
NResultNResult
Male sex, % Whole 435 48.3 194 49.0 
 LPRa 230 43.9 108 51.9 
Mother married, % Whole 435 1.8 194 1.0 
 LPRa 230 1.3 108 1.9 
Maternal race: African American, % Whole 435 93.6 194 90.7 
 LPRa 230 95.2 108 90.7 
Head of household employed, % Whole 434 56.5 193 49.2 
 LPRa 229 52.4 107 48.6 
Drank alcohol in last 14 d, % Whole 434 4.4 194 5.2 
 LPRa 229 5.7 108 7.4 
Smoked cigarettes in last 3 d, % Whole 434 8.5 194 10.8 
 LPRa 229 7.9 108 13.0 
Used marijuana in last 14 d, % Whole 434 1.6 194 1.0 
 LPRa 229 1.7 108 1.9 
Any sexually transmitted disease before random assignment, % Whole 432 33.3 194 37.6 
 LPRa 227 33.0 108 38.9 
Maternal age, y, mean (SD) Whole 435 18.10 (3.20) 194 18.08 (3.32) 
 LPRa 230 18.13 (3.31) 108 18.30 (3.85) 
Gestational age, wk, mean (SD) Whole 435 16.56 (5.74) 194 16.72 (5.71) 
 LPRa 230 16.39 (5.79) 108 16.68 (5.63) 
PR index,b,c y, mean (SD) Whole 434 99.87 (9.92) 194 99.36 (10.69) 
 LPRa 229 92.34 (5.80) 108 91.85 (6.71) 
Highest grade completed: mother, y, mean (SD) Whole 435 10.26 (1.88) 194 10.08 (2.04) 
 LPRa 230 9.93 (1.94) 108 9.62 (2.06) 
Discretionary annual household income (per $1000),d y, mean (SD) Whole 435 1.57 (6.99) 194 −0.18 (6.45) 
 LPRa 230 −0.19 (6.50) 108 −1.07 (6.16) 
% of census tract below poverty, y, mean (SD) Whole 435 34.85 (21.34) 194 35.30 (20.48) 
 LPRa 230 36.40 (21.08) 108 34.49 (21.31) 
Housing density,e y, mean (SD) Whole 435 0.95 (0.50) 194 1.04 (0.57) 
 LPRa 230 1.04 (0.53) 108 1.12 (0.52) 
Conflict with mother,f y, mean (SD) Whole 434 3.99 (0.90) 194 4.03 (0.74) 
 LPRa 229 4.15 (1.09) 108 4.09 (0.80) 
Conflict with partnerf Whole 434 3.97 (0.83) 194 4.07 (0.83) 
 LPRa 229 4.08 (0.96) 108 4.21 (0.96) 
Attitudes toward child-rearing predictive of CA,g y, mean (SD) Whole 435 99.88 (7.64) 194 101.08 (8.48) 
 LPRa 230 102.33 (7.06) 108 103.34 (7.70) 
Household poverty index,c,h y, mean (SD) Whole 435 99.63 (10.16) 194 102.19 (9.91) 
 LPRa 230 101.94 (10.09) 108 103.72 (9.82) 
Neighborhood disadvantage index,i y, mean (SD) Whole 435 2.33 (1.64) 194 2.38 (1.82) 
 LPRa 230 2.50 (1.60) 108 2.24 (1.72) 

T2, prenatal transportation plus developmental screening and referral.; T4, prenatal transportation plus developmental screening and referral and prenatal and infant and/or toddler nurse home visits.

a

Subgroup defined by youths' mothers falling into the lower half of the distribution for PR (LPR) described in the following footnote.

b

Average z scores of women’s intellectual functioning,21  mental health,22  and sense of mastery23  plus self-efficacy24  (mastery and self-efficacy measures were standardized and averaged; self-efficacy is based on participants’ beliefs about the importance of and confidence in accomplishing key NFP behavioral objectives).

c

Standardized to sample: mean = 100; SD = 10.

d

Annual household discretionary income is based on income subsistence standards for Medicaid eligibility, reported household income, and number of individuals in the household at registration.

e

Persons per room.

f

Locally developed scale that assesses degree to which the mother experiences conflict in her relationship with this person.

g

Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory.43 

h

Average z scores of household discretionary income, housing density, and whether the head of household was employed.

i

Average of variables calculated in SD units from the national means of components that comprise the index of concentrated social disadvantage (percentage of block group residents: [1] below federal poverty level, [2] receiving public assistance, [3] unemployed, [4] headed by single women, [5] age <18, and [6] African American).25 

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