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TABLE 4

Estimates of Cognitive, Language, Academic, and Executive Functioning Outcomes and SSI Benefit Received Among 18-Year-Old Youth in the Intervention and Control Conditions

VariableGroupChild Age at Assessment,a yControl, T2NV, T4T4–T2
NLS Meanb or % (SE)NLS Meanb or % (SE)ESc or aOR (95% CI)P
Primary outcome         
 Nonverbal intelligence Whole 18 431 LS mean 88.25 (0.62) 192 LS mean 88.47 (0.93) ES 0.02 (−0.17 to 0.20) .85 
 LPRd 18 227 LS mean 86.37 (0.86) 106 LS mean 87.41 (1.26) ES 0.09 (−0.16 to 0.34) .49 
 Whole Alle 454 LS mean 88.65 (0.47) 204 LS mean 89.58 (0.71) ES 0.08 (−0.06 to 0.22) .27 
 LPRd Alle 237 LS mean 87.16 (0.66) 111 LS mean 88.69 (0.98) ES 0.13 (−0.06 to 0.32) .19 
 Receptive language Whole 18 427 LS mean 81.60 (0.69) 194 LS mean 82.34 (1.03) ES 0.05 (−0.12 to 0.23) .55 
 LPRd 18 223 LS mean 79.02 (0.96) 108 LS mean 82.32 (1.39) ES 0.24 (0.00 to 0.47) .05** 
 Whole Alle 454 LS mena 82.08 (0.56) 204 LS mean 83.33 (0.83) ES 0.09 (−0.05 to 0.23) .21 
 LPRd Alle 237 LS mean 79.91 (0.78) 111 LS mean 82.79 (1.14) ES 0.21 (0.02 to 0.40) .03** 
 Math achievement score Whole 18 428 LS mean 80.38 (0.59) 193 LS mean 82.22 (0.88) ES 0.15 (−0.02 to 0.32) .08* 
 LPRd 18 225 LS mean 78.18 (0.82) 108 LS mean 82.73 (1.19) ES 0.38 (0.14 to 0.61) .002*** 
 Whole Allf 454 LS mean 85.22 (0.47) 205 LS mean 86.54 (0.71) ES 0.11 (−0.03 to 0.25) .12 
 LPRd Allf 237 LS mean 82.89 (0.66) 111 LS mean 86.70 (0.98) ES 0.31 (0.13 to 0.50) .001*** 
Secondary outcome         
 Sustained attention Whole 18 432 LS mean 8.68 (0.13) 194 LS mean 8.77 (0.19) ES 0.03 (−0.13 to 0.20) .67 
 LPRd 18 227 LS mean 8.22 (0.18) 108 LS mean 8.60 (0.26) ES 0.14 (−0.08 to 0.36) .22 
 Whole Allg 443 LS mean 8.68 (0.12) 199 LS mean 8.67 (0.18) ES −0.00 (−0.15 to 0.15) .97 
 LPRd Allg 232 LS mean 8.45 (0.17) 110 LS mean 8.57 (0.24) ES 0.04 (−0.16 to 0.24) .67 
 Working memory index Whole 18 432 LS mean 8.33 (0.13) 194 LS mean 8.66 (0.19) ES 0.12 (−0.04 to 0.29) .15 
 LPRd 18 227 LS mean 7.90 (0.18) 108 LS mean 8.51 (0.26) ES 0.23 (0.01 to 0.46) .04** 
 Emotion recognition, no. correct Whole 18 427 LS mean 52.55 (0.37) 190 LS mean 53.75 (0.56) ES 0.14 (−0.01 to 0.30) .08* 
 LPRd 18 225 LS mean 52.32 (0.52) 104 LS mean 54.19 (0.77) ES 0.22 (0.01 to 0.44) .04** 
 Risky decision-making Whole 18 430 LS mean 5.23 (0.19) 193 LS mean 4.92 (0.29) ES −0.08 (−0.25 to 0.10) .38 
 LPRd 18 227 LS mean 5.02 (0.27) 107 LS mean 4.95 (0.39) ES −0.02 (−0.25 to 0.21) .88 
 High school graduation Whole 18 431 71.8% (2.22) 188 75.5% (3.26) aOR 1.21 (0.81 to 1.82) .35 
 LPR 18 227 70.3% (3.14) 106 71.4% (4.51) aOR 1.06 (0.63 to 1.76) .83 
 Graduate with honorsh Whole 18 431 4.4% (1.05) 188 8.8% (2.12) aOR 2.12 (1.09 to 4.13) .03** 
 LPR 18 227 2.5% (0.99) 106 8.0% (2.70) aOR 3.34 (1.19 to 9.34) .02** 
 SSI: disabilityh Whole 18 429 5.8% (1.30) 190 3.4 %(1.27) aOR 0.58 (0.25 to 1.34) .19 
 LPRd 18 226 10.9% (2.21) 104 3.9% (1.70) aOR 0.33 (0.13 to 0.84) .01** 
VariableGroupChild Age at Assessment,a yControl, T2NV, T4T4–T2
NLS Meanb or % (SE)NLS Meanb or % (SE)ESc or aOR (95% CI)P
Primary outcome         
 Nonverbal intelligence Whole 18 431 LS mean 88.25 (0.62) 192 LS mean 88.47 (0.93) ES 0.02 (−0.17 to 0.20) .85 
 LPRd 18 227 LS mean 86.37 (0.86) 106 LS mean 87.41 (1.26) ES 0.09 (−0.16 to 0.34) .49 
 Whole Alle 454 LS mean 88.65 (0.47) 204 LS mean 89.58 (0.71) ES 0.08 (−0.06 to 0.22) .27 
 LPRd Alle 237 LS mean 87.16 (0.66) 111 LS mean 88.69 (0.98) ES 0.13 (−0.06 to 0.32) .19 
 Receptive language Whole 18 427 LS mean 81.60 (0.69) 194 LS mean 82.34 (1.03) ES 0.05 (−0.12 to 0.23) .55 
 LPRd 18 223 LS mean 79.02 (0.96) 108 LS mean 82.32 (1.39) ES 0.24 (0.00 to 0.47) .05** 
 Whole Alle 454 LS mena 82.08 (0.56) 204 LS mean 83.33 (0.83) ES 0.09 (−0.05 to 0.23) .21 
 LPRd Alle 237 LS mean 79.91 (0.78) 111 LS mean 82.79 (1.14) ES 0.21 (0.02 to 0.40) .03** 
 Math achievement score Whole 18 428 LS mean 80.38 (0.59) 193 LS mean 82.22 (0.88) ES 0.15 (−0.02 to 0.32) .08* 
 LPRd 18 225 LS mean 78.18 (0.82) 108 LS mean 82.73 (1.19) ES 0.38 (0.14 to 0.61) .002*** 
 Whole Allf 454 LS mean 85.22 (0.47) 205 LS mean 86.54 (0.71) ES 0.11 (−0.03 to 0.25) .12 
 LPRd Allf 237 LS mean 82.89 (0.66) 111 LS mean 86.70 (0.98) ES 0.31 (0.13 to 0.50) .001*** 
Secondary outcome         
 Sustained attention Whole 18 432 LS mean 8.68 (0.13) 194 LS mean 8.77 (0.19) ES 0.03 (−0.13 to 0.20) .67 
 LPRd 18 227 LS mean 8.22 (0.18) 108 LS mean 8.60 (0.26) ES 0.14 (−0.08 to 0.36) .22 
 Whole Allg 443 LS mean 8.68 (0.12) 199 LS mean 8.67 (0.18) ES −0.00 (−0.15 to 0.15) .97 
 LPRd Allg 232 LS mean 8.45 (0.17) 110 LS mean 8.57 (0.24) ES 0.04 (−0.16 to 0.24) .67 
 Working memory index Whole 18 432 LS mean 8.33 (0.13) 194 LS mean 8.66 (0.19) ES 0.12 (−0.04 to 0.29) .15 
 LPRd 18 227 LS mean 7.90 (0.18) 108 LS mean 8.51 (0.26) ES 0.23 (0.01 to 0.46) .04** 
 Emotion recognition, no. correct Whole 18 427 LS mean 52.55 (0.37) 190 LS mean 53.75 (0.56) ES 0.14 (−0.01 to 0.30) .08* 
 LPRd 18 225 LS mean 52.32 (0.52) 104 LS mean 54.19 (0.77) ES 0.22 (0.01 to 0.44) .04** 
 Risky decision-making Whole 18 430 LS mean 5.23 (0.19) 193 LS mean 4.92 (0.29) ES −0.08 (−0.25 to 0.10) .38 
 LPRd 18 227 LS mean 5.02 (0.27) 107 LS mean 4.95 (0.39) ES −0.02 (−0.25 to 0.21) .88 
 High school graduation Whole 18 431 71.8% (2.22) 188 75.5% (3.26) aOR 1.21 (0.81 to 1.82) .35 
 LPR 18 227 70.3% (3.14) 106 71.4% (4.51) aOR 1.06 (0.63 to 1.76) .83 
 Graduate with honorsh Whole 18 431 4.4% (1.05) 188 8.8% (2.12) aOR 2.12 (1.09 to 4.13) .03** 
 LPR 18 227 2.5% (0.99) 106 8.0% (2.70) aOR 3.34 (1.19 to 9.34) .02** 
 SSI: disabilityh Whole 18 429 5.8% (1.30) 190 3.4 %(1.27) aOR 0.58 (0.25 to 1.34) .19 
 LPRd 18 226 10.9% (2.21) 104 3.9% (1.70) aOR 0.33 (0.13 to 0.84) .01** 

The estimates of intervention-control differences averaged over all other fixed classification variables, including those within subjects, and the same treatment effect were restricted to the group defined by LPR. This table shows the least-squares means at 18 y and repeated measures over time (labeled “all” under “age at assessment”), which also are averaged over other fixed classification effects. For estimates of treatment effects based on repeated measures, we assumed an error structure with different variances at each time for a given child and a different covariance between pairs of times within each child. These were assumed to be the same for all children, and covariance between children was assumed to be negligible. Contrasts at specific, earlier time points are presented in earlier publications.11–16  LS, least squares; T2, prenatal transportation plus developmental screening and referral.; T4, prenatal transportation plus developmental screening and referral and prenatal and infant and/or toddler nurse home visits.

a

Age 18 assessment denoted by 18 y; repeated-measures assessment denoted by “all.” The exact ages aggregated for repeated-measures estimates are given in footnotes.

b

Adjusted.

c

Expressed in SD units.

d

Subgroup defined by youth mothers falling into the lower half of the distribution for PR (LPR).

e

Ages 6 and 18.

f

Ages 6, 12, and 18.

g

Ages 12 and 18.

h

Exploratory outcome.

*

P < .10; ** P < .05; *** P < .01.

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