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TABLE 5

Estimates of Youth Substance-Use Disorders, Drug or Alcohol Use, STIs, Pregnancies, Births, Behavioral Problems, Arrests, Convictions, and Gang Activity

VariableGroupChild Age at Assessment, yControl, T2NV, T4T4–T2
NLS Meana or % (SE)NLS Meana or % (SE)ES,b aOR, IR, or HR (95% CI)P
Primary outcome         
 Time to substance-use disorderc,d Whole 18 435 10.5% (1.41) 194 13.2% (2.22) HR 1.28 (0.85 to 1.93) .24 
 Current drug use SR past month or positive laboratory test resulte Whole 18 423 48.4% (2.49) 190 51.1% (3.73) aOR 1.11 (0.78 to 1.58) .55 
 Time to first pregnancyc,d Males 18 210 17.2% (2.56) 95 15.0% (3.30) HR 0.86 (0.51 to 1.46) .57 
 Females 18 225 26.4% (2.92) 99 22.8% (3.95) HR 0.85 (0.54 to 1.32) .46 
 Time to first live birthc,d Males 18 210 6.3% (1.60) 95 7.5% (2.37) HR 1.20 (0.58 to 2.49) .62 
 Females 18 225 16.8% (2.45) 99 13.7% (3.21) HR 0.80 (0.46 to 1.41) .44 
 Any positive STI laboratory test result Males 18 198 15.4% (2.58) 88 14.8% (3.82) aOR 0.95 (0.47 to 1.94) .89 
 Females 18 220 22.8% (2.87) 99 25.5% (4.47) aOR 1.16 (0.66 to 2.04) .60 
 HIV risk (log transformed) Whole 18 417 LS mean −13.50 (0.17) 187 LS mean −13.77 (0.26) ES −0.08 (−0.25 to 0.10) .38 
 Internalizing behavior problemsf,g Whole 18 431 17.7% (1.93) 194 16.5% (2.79) aOR 0.92 (0.57 to 1.48) .73 
 Whole Allj 459 20.4% (1.35) 207 17.4% (1.85) aOR 0.82 (0.61 to 1.11) .19 
 No. arrestsc Whole 18 435 LS mean 0.35 (0.05) 194 LS mean 0.36 (0.08) IR 1.02 (0.61 to 1.70) .93 
 Females 18 225 LS mean 0.23 (0.05) 99 LS mean 0.19 (0.06) IR 0.84 (0.39 to 1.81) .65 
 No. convictionsc Whole 18 435 LS mean 0.28 (0.04) 194 LS mean 0.24 (0.06) IR 0.86 (0.50 to 1.47) .59 
 Females 18 225 LS mean 0.21 (0.04) 99 LS mean 0.10 (0.04) IR 0.47 (0.20 to 1.11) .08* 
 No. interpersonal violence arrestsc Whole 18 435 LS mean 0.14 (0.03) 194 LS mean 0.19 (0.05) IR 1.39 (0.73 to 2.65) .32 
 Females 18 225 LS mean 0.09 (0.03) 99 LS mean 0.14 (0.05) IR 1.48 (0.57 to 3.86) .42 
 No. interpersonal violence convictionsc Whole 18 435 LS mean 0.10 (0.02) 194 LS mean 0.13 (0.04) IR 1.33 (0.66 to 2.65) .43 
 Females 18 225 LS mean 0.08 (0.02) 99 LS mean 0.07 (0.03) IR 0.81 (0.28 to 2.34) .69 
 Ever in a gangc Whole 18 432 8.5% (1.44) 193 11.2% (2.31) aOR 1.35 (0.80 to 2.28) .27 
Secondary outcome         
 Externalizing behavior problemsh Whole 18 424 7.4% (1.31) 187 8.3% (2.08) aOR 1.13 (0.59 to 2.17) .72 
 Whole Allj 459 14.1% (1.20) 206 14.4% (1.80) aOR 1.02 (0.72 to 1.44) .91 
 Total behavior problemsg,h Whole 18 424 4.4% (1.01) 187 6.8% (1.89) aOR 1.60 (0.75 to 3.39) .22 
 Whole Allj 459 8.2% (0.95) 206 7.7% (1.48) aOR 0.94 (0.58 to 1.51) .79 
VariableGroupChild Age at Assessment, yControl, T2NV, T4T4–T2
NLS Meana or % (SE)NLS Meana or % (SE)ES,b aOR, IR, or HR (95% CI)P
Primary outcome         
 Time to substance-use disorderc,d Whole 18 435 10.5% (1.41) 194 13.2% (2.22) HR 1.28 (0.85 to 1.93) .24 
 Current drug use SR past month or positive laboratory test resulte Whole 18 423 48.4% (2.49) 190 51.1% (3.73) aOR 1.11 (0.78 to 1.58) .55 
 Time to first pregnancyc,d Males 18 210 17.2% (2.56) 95 15.0% (3.30) HR 0.86 (0.51 to 1.46) .57 
 Females 18 225 26.4% (2.92) 99 22.8% (3.95) HR 0.85 (0.54 to 1.32) .46 
 Time to first live birthc,d Males 18 210 6.3% (1.60) 95 7.5% (2.37) HR 1.20 (0.58 to 2.49) .62 
 Females 18 225 16.8% (2.45) 99 13.7% (3.21) HR 0.80 (0.46 to 1.41) .44 
 Any positive STI laboratory test result Males 18 198 15.4% (2.58) 88 14.8% (3.82) aOR 0.95 (0.47 to 1.94) .89 
 Females 18 220 22.8% (2.87) 99 25.5% (4.47) aOR 1.16 (0.66 to 2.04) .60 
 HIV risk (log transformed) Whole 18 417 LS mean −13.50 (0.17) 187 LS mean −13.77 (0.26) ES −0.08 (−0.25 to 0.10) .38 
 Internalizing behavior problemsf,g Whole 18 431 17.7% (1.93) 194 16.5% (2.79) aOR 0.92 (0.57 to 1.48) .73 
 Whole Allj 459 20.4% (1.35) 207 17.4% (1.85) aOR 0.82 (0.61 to 1.11) .19 
 No. arrestsc Whole 18 435 LS mean 0.35 (0.05) 194 LS mean 0.36 (0.08) IR 1.02 (0.61 to 1.70) .93 
 Females 18 225 LS mean 0.23 (0.05) 99 LS mean 0.19 (0.06) IR 0.84 (0.39 to 1.81) .65 
 No. convictionsc Whole 18 435 LS mean 0.28 (0.04) 194 LS mean 0.24 (0.06) IR 0.86 (0.50 to 1.47) .59 
 Females 18 225 LS mean 0.21 (0.04) 99 LS mean 0.10 (0.04) IR 0.47 (0.20 to 1.11) .08* 
 No. interpersonal violence arrestsc Whole 18 435 LS mean 0.14 (0.03) 194 LS mean 0.19 (0.05) IR 1.39 (0.73 to 2.65) .32 
 Females 18 225 LS mean 0.09 (0.03) 99 LS mean 0.14 (0.05) IR 1.48 (0.57 to 3.86) .42 
 No. interpersonal violence convictionsc Whole 18 435 LS mean 0.10 (0.02) 194 LS mean 0.13 (0.04) IR 1.33 (0.66 to 2.65) .43 
 Females 18 225 LS mean 0.08 (0.02) 99 LS mean 0.07 (0.03) IR 0.81 (0.28 to 2.34) .69 
 Ever in a gangc Whole 18 432 8.5% (1.44) 193 11.2% (2.31) aOR 1.35 (0.80 to 2.28) .27 
Secondary outcome         
 Externalizing behavior problemsh Whole 18 424 7.4% (1.31) 187 8.3% (2.08) aOR 1.13 (0.59 to 2.17) .72 
 Whole Allj 459 14.1% (1.20) 206 14.4% (1.80) aOR 1.02 (0.72 to 1.44) .91 
 Total behavior problemsg,h Whole 18 424 4.4% (1.01) 187 6.8% (1.89) aOR 1.60 (0.75 to 3.39) .22 
 Whole Allj 459 8.2% (0.95) 206 7.7% (1.48) aOR 0.94 (0.58 to 1.51) .79 

The estimates of intervention-control differences averaged over all other fixed classification variables, including those within subjects, and the same treatment effect was restricted to the group defined by females for arrest and conviction outcomes. This table shows the least-squares means at 18 y and repeated measures over time, which also are averaged over other fixed classification effects. For estimates of treatment effects based on repeated measures (labeled “all” under “age at assessment”), we assumed an error structure with different variances at each time for a given child and different covariance between pairs of times within each child. These were assumed to be the same for all children, and covariance between children was assumed to be negligible. Contrasts at specific, earlier time points are presented in earlier publications.11–16  HR, hazards ratio; LS, least squares; SR, self-report; T2, prenatal transportation plus developmental screening and referral; T4, prenatal transportation plus developmental screening and referral and prenatal and infant and/or toddler nurse home visits.

a

Adjusted.

b

Expressed in SD units.

c

Arrest-related outcomes were based on self-report combined with maternal and other-caregiver report (when available).

d

Survival rate at age 18 from Cox proportional hazard model.

e

Based on both self-report for all substances and urine assays for specific substances: phencyclidine, benzodiazepines, cocaine, amphetamines, tetrahydrocannabinol, opiates, and barbiturates.

f

Internalizing problems were based on youth self-report at ages 12 and 18 and maternal and/or other-caregiver report at child age 6, indicated by values exceeding the borderline or clinical threshold.

g

Ages 6, 12, and 18.

h

Externalizing and total problems were based on reports in which mothers and/or other caregivers (age 6); mothers and/or other caregivers, teachers, and children (2 of 3 at age 12); and youth and mothers and/or other caregivers (age 18) reported scores that exceeded the borderline or clinical threshold.

*

P < .10.

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