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TABLE 3

Bivariable and Multivariable Associations Between Independent Variables and HIV Testing

Independent Variable, LevelNot Tested, n (%)Tested, n (%)OR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)
Age, y     
 13–14 84 (94.4) 5 (5.6) Reference Reference 
 15–16 282 (84.2) 53 (15.8) 3.16* (1.34–9.29) 2.41 (0.91–7.74) 
 17–18 171 (62.2) 104 (37.8) 10.22*** (4.41–29.75) 5.48** (2.09–17.53) 
Race and/or ethnicity     
 White 225 (80.1) 56 (19.9) Reference Reference 
 African American 87 (71.9) 34 (28.1) 1.57 (0.95–2.56) 1.83 (0.95–3.49) 
 Latinx 172 (77.8) 49 (22.2) 1.14 (0.74–1.76) 1.28 (0.72–2.28) 
 Other 53 (69.7) 23 (30.3) 1.74 (0.97–3.06) 1.54 (0.7–3.33) 
Urban or rural     
 Urban 495 (76.4) 153 (23.6) Reference Reference 
 Rural 42 (82.4) 9 (17.6) 0.69 (0.31–1.39) 0.89 (0.33–2.16) 
Public assistance     
 No or do not know 359 (77.2) 106 (22.8) Reference  
 Yes 178 (76.1) 56 (23.9) 1.07 (0.73–1.54) 0.79 (0.48–1.3) 
Sexual orientation     
 Gay 345 (74.4) 119 (25.6) Reference Reference 
 Bisexual 140 (80.0) 35 (20.0) 0.72 (0.47–1.1) 1.16 (0.65–2.05) 
 Other 52 (86.7) 8 (13.3) 0.45* (0.19–0.92) 0.42 (0.16–1.05) 
Vaginal or anal sex, lifetime     
 No 233 (93.2) 17 (6.8) Reference Reference 
 Yes 304 (67.7) 145 (32.3) 6.54*** (3.95–11.49) 3.24** (1.58–6.83) 
CAS experience, lifetime     
 No 330 (86.6) 51 (13.4) Reference Reference 
 Yes 207 (65.1) 111 (34.9) 3.47*** (2.4–5.08) 1.47 (0.83–2.64) 
HIV education in school     
 No or do not know 182 (77.4) 53 (22.6) Reference Reference 
 Yes 355 (76.5) 109 (23.5) 1.05 (0.73–1.54) 1.01 (0.62–1.66) 
HIV education from family     
 No or do not know 384 (81.4) 88 (18.6) Reference Reference 
 Yes 153 (67.4) 74 (32.6) 2.11*** (1.47–3.03) 1.25 (0.73–2.15) 
Spoken to family about sexual expectations     
 No or do not know 344 (79.8) 87 (20.2) Reference Reference 
 Yes 193 (72.0) 75 (28.0) 1.54* (1.08–2.19) 1.04 (0.61–1.77) 
Outness     
 No one or select few 188 (84.7) 34 (15.3) Reference Reference 
 Most people 229 (78.4) 63 (21.6) 1.52 (0.97–2.43) 1.12 (0.63–2.01) 
 Everyone 120 (64.9) 65 (35.1) 3.00*** (1.88–4.85) 1.5 (0.79–2.85) 
Have a regular doctor     
 No 179 (78.9) 48 (21.1) Reference Reference 
 Yes 358 (75.8) 114 (24.2) 1.19 (0.81–1.75) 1.05 (0.63–1.76) 
Spoken to a doctor about sex with male partners     
 No 472 (85.8) 78 (14.2) Reference Reference 
 Yes 65 (43.6) 84 (56.4) 7.82*** (5.25–11.75) 2.66*** (1.52–4.67) 
Spoken to a doctor about HIV testing     
 No 504 (89.2) 61 (10.8) Reference — 
 Yes 33 (24.6) 101 (75.4) 25.29*** (15.91–41.16) — 
Doctor asked about sexual orientation     
 No 419 (84.6) 76 (15.4) Reference Reference 
 Yes 118 (57.8) 86 (42.2) 4.02*** (2.78–5.83) 2.02** (1.2–3.4) 
HIV knowledge, % correct, mean (SD) 64.3 (19.9) 73.7 (17.5) 1.03*** (1.02–1.04) 1.02** (1.01–1.03) 
Perceived vulnerability, mean (SD) 5.7 (1.7) 5.8 (1.7) 1.03 (0.93–1.14) 1.03 (0.89–1.18) 
Importance of getting an HIV test, mean (SD) 4.5 (0.8) 4.8 (0.7) 1.74*** (1.3–2.41) 1.49* (1.08–2.13) 
Difficulty of getting an HIV test, mean (SD) 2.6 (1.1) 3.6 (1.1) 2.28*** (1.92–2.74) 1.86*** (1.49–2.33) 
Confidence in obtaining HIV treatment, mean (SD) 2.7 (1) 2.9 (1) 1.26* (1.05–1.51) 0.93 (0.72–1.2) 
Independent Variable, LevelNot Tested, n (%)Tested, n (%)OR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)
Age, y     
 13–14 84 (94.4) 5 (5.6) Reference Reference 
 15–16 282 (84.2) 53 (15.8) 3.16* (1.34–9.29) 2.41 (0.91–7.74) 
 17–18 171 (62.2) 104 (37.8) 10.22*** (4.41–29.75) 5.48** (2.09–17.53) 
Race and/or ethnicity     
 White 225 (80.1) 56 (19.9) Reference Reference 
 African American 87 (71.9) 34 (28.1) 1.57 (0.95–2.56) 1.83 (0.95–3.49) 
 Latinx 172 (77.8) 49 (22.2) 1.14 (0.74–1.76) 1.28 (0.72–2.28) 
 Other 53 (69.7) 23 (30.3) 1.74 (0.97–3.06) 1.54 (0.7–3.33) 
Urban or rural     
 Urban 495 (76.4) 153 (23.6) Reference Reference 
 Rural 42 (82.4) 9 (17.6) 0.69 (0.31–1.39) 0.89 (0.33–2.16) 
Public assistance     
 No or do not know 359 (77.2) 106 (22.8) Reference  
 Yes 178 (76.1) 56 (23.9) 1.07 (0.73–1.54) 0.79 (0.48–1.3) 
Sexual orientation     
 Gay 345 (74.4) 119 (25.6) Reference Reference 
 Bisexual 140 (80.0) 35 (20.0) 0.72 (0.47–1.1) 1.16 (0.65–2.05) 
 Other 52 (86.7) 8 (13.3) 0.45* (0.19–0.92) 0.42 (0.16–1.05) 
Vaginal or anal sex, lifetime     
 No 233 (93.2) 17 (6.8) Reference Reference 
 Yes 304 (67.7) 145 (32.3) 6.54*** (3.95–11.49) 3.24** (1.58–6.83) 
CAS experience, lifetime     
 No 330 (86.6) 51 (13.4) Reference Reference 
 Yes 207 (65.1) 111 (34.9) 3.47*** (2.4–5.08) 1.47 (0.83–2.64) 
HIV education in school     
 No or do not know 182 (77.4) 53 (22.6) Reference Reference 
 Yes 355 (76.5) 109 (23.5) 1.05 (0.73–1.54) 1.01 (0.62–1.66) 
HIV education from family     
 No or do not know 384 (81.4) 88 (18.6) Reference Reference 
 Yes 153 (67.4) 74 (32.6) 2.11*** (1.47–3.03) 1.25 (0.73–2.15) 
Spoken to family about sexual expectations     
 No or do not know 344 (79.8) 87 (20.2) Reference Reference 
 Yes 193 (72.0) 75 (28.0) 1.54* (1.08–2.19) 1.04 (0.61–1.77) 
Outness     
 No one or select few 188 (84.7) 34 (15.3) Reference Reference 
 Most people 229 (78.4) 63 (21.6) 1.52 (0.97–2.43) 1.12 (0.63–2.01) 
 Everyone 120 (64.9) 65 (35.1) 3.00*** (1.88–4.85) 1.5 (0.79–2.85) 
Have a regular doctor     
 No 179 (78.9) 48 (21.1) Reference Reference 
 Yes 358 (75.8) 114 (24.2) 1.19 (0.81–1.75) 1.05 (0.63–1.76) 
Spoken to a doctor about sex with male partners     
 No 472 (85.8) 78 (14.2) Reference Reference 
 Yes 65 (43.6) 84 (56.4) 7.82*** (5.25–11.75) 2.66*** (1.52–4.67) 
Spoken to a doctor about HIV testing     
 No 504 (89.2) 61 (10.8) Reference — 
 Yes 33 (24.6) 101 (75.4) 25.29*** (15.91–41.16) — 
Doctor asked about sexual orientation     
 No 419 (84.6) 76 (15.4) Reference Reference 
 Yes 118 (57.8) 86 (42.2) 4.02*** (2.78–5.83) 2.02** (1.2–3.4) 
HIV knowledge, % correct, mean (SD) 64.3 (19.9) 73.7 (17.5) 1.03*** (1.02–1.04) 1.02** (1.01–1.03) 
Perceived vulnerability, mean (SD) 5.7 (1.7) 5.8 (1.7) 1.03 (0.93–1.14) 1.03 (0.89–1.18) 
Importance of getting an HIV test, mean (SD) 4.5 (0.8) 4.8 (0.7) 1.74*** (1.3–2.41) 1.49* (1.08–2.13) 
Difficulty of getting an HIV test, mean (SD) 2.6 (1.1) 3.6 (1.1) 2.28*** (1.92–2.74) 1.86*** (1.49–2.33) 
Confidence in obtaining HIV treatment, mean (SD) 2.7 (1) 2.9 (1) 1.26* (1.05–1.51) 0.93 (0.72–1.2) 

aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; —, not applicable.

*

P < .05

**

P < .01

***

P < .001.

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