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TABLE 1

Baseline Characteristics of 231 Children With Encephalitis, Houston, Texas, 2010–2017

Case CharacteristicsOverall, N = 231Infectious CausesNoninfectious CausesUnknown, n = 98
Viral, n = 51Bacterial, n = 19Other Infectious,an = 3Autoimmune, n = 60
Male sex, n (%) 126 (55)b 34 (67) 11 (58) 3 (100) 25 (42) 53 (54) 
Mean age in y (range) 8.1 (0–18) 7.2 (0–18) 6.8 (1–16) 3.9 (0–17) 8.4 (0–18) 9.1 (1–18) 
Race and ethnicity, n (%)       
 White, non-Hispanic 76 (33) 22 (43) 8 (42) 1 (33) 16 (27) 29 (30) 
 White, Hispanic 91 (40) 20 (39) 7 (37) 2 (67) 28 (47) 34 (35) 
 Black 39 (17) 4 (8) 3 (16) 11 (18) 21 (21) 
 Asian American 11 (5) 3 (6) 3 (5) 5 (5) 
 Middle Eastern 5 (2) 1 (2) 4 (4) 
 Multiple or missing 9 (4) 2 (4) 1 (5) 1 (2) 5 (5) 
Patient transferred after admission to an outside hospital, n (%) 92 (40) 17 (33) 9 (47) 1 (33) 28 (47) 37 (38) 
Immune compromised, n (%) 23 (10) 9 (18) 1 (5) 2 (67) 2 (3) 9 (9) 
Mean Glasgow Coma Scale on admission (range) 12.3 (3–15) 12.3 (3–15) 11.3 (3–15) 11.7 (8–15) 12.8 (3–15) 12.2 (3–15) 
New onset seizure recorded, n (%) 142 (62) 31 (61) 12 (63) 2 (67) 39 (65) 58 (60) 
Abnormal MRI findingsc, n (%) 143 out of 219 (65) 35 out of 48 (73) 15 out of 17 (88) 3 out of 3 (100) 33 out of 59 (56) 57 out of 92 (62) 
Abnormal EEG findingsc, n (%) 132 out of 159 (83) 29 out of 35 (83) 15 out of 15 (100) 3 out of 3 (100) 33 out of 42 (79) 52 out of 64 (81) 
Median No. days hospitalized (range) 12 (3–302) 12 (3–302) 13 (4–83) 69 (3–111) 16.5 (5–101) 10 (3–147) 
Fatal cases, n (%) 9 (4) 3 (6) 1 (33) 5 (5) 
Case CharacteristicsOverall, N = 231Infectious CausesNoninfectious CausesUnknown, n = 98
Viral, n = 51Bacterial, n = 19Other Infectious,an = 3Autoimmune, n = 60
Male sex, n (%) 126 (55)b 34 (67) 11 (58) 3 (100) 25 (42) 53 (54) 
Mean age in y (range) 8.1 (0–18) 7.2 (0–18) 6.8 (1–16) 3.9 (0–17) 8.4 (0–18) 9.1 (1–18) 
Race and ethnicity, n (%)       
 White, non-Hispanic 76 (33) 22 (43) 8 (42) 1 (33) 16 (27) 29 (30) 
 White, Hispanic 91 (40) 20 (39) 7 (37) 2 (67) 28 (47) 34 (35) 
 Black 39 (17) 4 (8) 3 (16) 11 (18) 21 (21) 
 Asian American 11 (5) 3 (6) 3 (5) 5 (5) 
 Middle Eastern 5 (2) 1 (2) 4 (4) 
 Multiple or missing 9 (4) 2 (4) 1 (5) 1 (2) 5 (5) 
Patient transferred after admission to an outside hospital, n (%) 92 (40) 17 (33) 9 (47) 1 (33) 28 (47) 37 (38) 
Immune compromised, n (%) 23 (10) 9 (18) 1 (5) 2 (67) 2 (3) 9 (9) 
Mean Glasgow Coma Scale on admission (range) 12.3 (3–15) 12.3 (3–15) 11.3 (3–15) 11.7 (8–15) 12.8 (3–15) 12.2 (3–15) 
New onset seizure recorded, n (%) 142 (62) 31 (61) 12 (63) 2 (67) 39 (65) 58 (60) 
Abnormal MRI findingsc, n (%) 143 out of 219 (65) 35 out of 48 (73) 15 out of 17 (88) 3 out of 3 (100) 33 out of 59 (56) 57 out of 92 (62) 
Abnormal EEG findingsc, n (%) 132 out of 159 (83) 29 out of 35 (83) 15 out of 15 (100) 3 out of 3 (100) 33 out of 42 (79) 52 out of 64 (81) 
Median No. days hospitalized (range) 12 (3–302) 12 (3–302) 13 (4–83) 69 (3–111) 16.5 (5–101) 10 (3–147) 
Fatal cases, n (%) 9 (4) 3 (6) 1 (33) 5 (5) 
a

Other includes fungal causes (n = 2) and amoebic infections (n = 1).

b

All percentages reflect the number in the cell divided by the n represented in the top of the column.

c

The first available MRI and EEG acquired during the admission were used to generate this variable; some patients did not have one or the other test conducted. Denominators include 219 MRI and 159 EEG conducted total, 48 MRI and 35 EEG conducted for viral patients, 17 MRI and 15 EEG conducted for bacterial patients, 3 MRI and 3 EEG conducted for other infectious patients, 59 MRI and 42 EEG for patients with autoimmune encephalitis, and 92 MRI and 64 EEG conducted for patients with unknown etiology.

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