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TABLE 2

Clinical and Laboratory Findings by Cause of Encephalitis

EtiologyNo. CasesTime From Symptom Onset to Hospitalization, d (range)Time From Hospitalization to Diagnosis, d (range)Fever, n (%)Rash, n (%)CSF Pleocytosis, n (%)CSF Lymphocyte, % (range)
Autoimmune        
 Anti-NMDAR 31 8 (0–90) 6 (1–17) 5 (16) 1 (3) 23 (74) 91 (67–95) 
 ADEM 18 5 (1–10) 5.5 (0–43) 13 (72) 2 (11) 16 (89) 58.5 (8–93) 
 Hashimoto's 1 (0–30) 9.5 (0–13) 2 (33) 1 (17) a 
 Other autoimmuneb 10 (0–60) 32.5 (6–53) 2 (40) 1 (20) a 
Viral        
 Herpesvirus 20 2 (0–21) 2 (1–37) 15 (75) 5 (26) 18 (90) 75 (18–92) 
 Arbovirus 13 0 (4–10) 6 (4–13) 12 (92) 5 (39) 12 (92) 52 (13–91) 
 Respiratory virusb 10 1 (0–7) 2 (1–24) 9 (90) 1 (10) 5 (50) 74 (2–83) 
 Enterovirus 2 (1–10) 2.5 (1–9) 6 (86) 7 (100) 53 (1–96) 
 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus 1 (100) a 
Bacterial        
 Gram-positive bacteria 4 (2–18) 3 (2–9) 6 (86) 7 (100) 1 (0–60) 
 Gram-negative bacteria 3 (1–20) 4.5 (3–6) 2 (66) 3 (100) 2 (0–4) 
B. henselae 1 (0–7) 6 (2–8) 5 (71) 2 (29) 3 (43) 48.5 (10–87) 
Spotted fever group rickettsioses 4.5 (4–5) 30.5 (18–43) 2 (100) 1 (50) 2 (100) 35 (30–40) 
Other infectiousb 5 (0–30) 2.5 (1–4) 2 (67) 1 (33) 3 (100) 37 (14–60) 
EtiologyNo. CasesTime From Symptom Onset to Hospitalization, d (range)Time From Hospitalization to Diagnosis, d (range)Fever, n (%)Rash, n (%)CSF Pleocytosis, n (%)CSF Lymphocyte, % (range)
Autoimmune        
 Anti-NMDAR 31 8 (0–90) 6 (1–17) 5 (16) 1 (3) 23 (74) 91 (67–95) 
 ADEM 18 5 (1–10) 5.5 (0–43) 13 (72) 2 (11) 16 (89) 58.5 (8–93) 
 Hashimoto's 1 (0–30) 9.5 (0–13) 2 (33) 1 (17) a 
 Other autoimmuneb 10 (0–60) 32.5 (6–53) 2 (40) 1 (20) a 
Viral        
 Herpesvirus 20 2 (0–21) 2 (1–37) 15 (75) 5 (26) 18 (90) 75 (18–92) 
 Arbovirus 13 0 (4–10) 6 (4–13) 12 (92) 5 (39) 12 (92) 52 (13–91) 
 Respiratory virusb 10 1 (0–7) 2 (1–24) 9 (90) 1 (10) 5 (50) 74 (2–83) 
 Enterovirus 2 (1–10) 2.5 (1–9) 6 (86) 7 (100) 53 (1–96) 
 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus 1 (100) a 
Bacterial        
 Gram-positive bacteria 4 (2–18) 3 (2–9) 6 (86) 7 (100) 1 (0–60) 
 Gram-negative bacteria 3 (1–20) 4.5 (3–6) 2 (66) 3 (100) 2 (0–4) 
B. henselae 1 (0–7) 6 (2–8) 5 (71) 2 (29) 3 (43) 48.5 (10–87) 
Spotted fever group rickettsioses 4.5 (4–5) 30.5 (18–43) 2 (100) 1 (50) 2 (100) 35 (30–40) 
Other infectiousb 5 (0–30) 2.5 (1–4) 2 (67) 1 (33) 3 (100) 37 (14–60) 

—, not applicable.

a

No observations on this variable were available.

b

Other autoimmune causes included anti-VGKC (2), anti-GAD (2), and anti-CV2/CRMP5 (1). Respiratory viruses included influenza (n = 6), parainfluenza (n = 2), and adenovirus (n = 2). Other infectious causes included C. lusitaniae, C. neoformans, and N. fowleri.

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