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TABLE 1

Participant Characteristics at Each Time Point of the Study

Participant CharacteristicsChild Age 4 y (N = 306)Child Age 5 y (N = 286)Child Age 6 y (N = 295)Child Age 8 y (N = 266)Child Age 9 y (N = 192)
Mother characteristics      
 Age, y, mean (SD) 29.47 (7.32) — 31.19 (7.18) 33.52 (7.65) 34.29 (7.57) 
 Race and/or ethnicity, n (%)      
  Non-Hispanic white 205 (67.0) 180 (67.7) 189 (67.7) 141 (67.1) 123 (68.0) 
  Hispanic or not white 147 (48.0) 86 (32.3) 90 (32.3) 69 (32.9) 58 (32.0) 
 Level of education, n (%)      
  High school diploma or less 147 (48.0) 129 (48.5) 135 (48.4) 120 (47.2) 83 (45.9) 
  More than a high school diploma 159 (52.0) 137 (51.5) 144 (51.60) 134 (52.8) 98 (54.1) 
 BMI, mean (SD) 32.50 (8.89) — 33.04 (9.32) 32.87 (9.50) 33.88 (9.90) 
 Feeding behaviors, mean (SD)      
  Restriction — 3.36 (0.93) 3.33 (0.92) — 3.15 (1.00) 
  Pressure to eat — 2.81 (1.15) 2.75 (1.08) — 2.49 (1.10) 
  Demandingness — 2.67 (0.56) 2.55 (0.56) — 2.28 (0.56) 
Child characteristics      
 Age, y, mean (SD) 4.24 (0.52) 4.90 (0.70) 5.94 (0.69) 7.91 (0.72) 8.55 (0.94) 
 Male sex, n (%) 158 (51.60) 136 (51.1) 144 (51.60) 130 (51.2) 98 (54.10) 
 BMIz , mean (SD) 0.79 (1.10) 0.83 (1.10) 0.84 (1.03) 0.96 (0.99) 0.91 (1.02) 
 Picky eating (CEBQ FF), mean (SD) 2.73 (0.84) — 2.72 (0.77) 2.86 (0.82) 2.68 (0.82) 
Participant CharacteristicsChild Age 4 y (N = 306)Child Age 5 y (N = 286)Child Age 6 y (N = 295)Child Age 8 y (N = 266)Child Age 9 y (N = 192)
Mother characteristics      
 Age, y, mean (SD) 29.47 (7.32) — 31.19 (7.18) 33.52 (7.65) 34.29 (7.57) 
 Race and/or ethnicity, n (%)      
  Non-Hispanic white 205 (67.0) 180 (67.7) 189 (67.7) 141 (67.1) 123 (68.0) 
  Hispanic or not white 147 (48.0) 86 (32.3) 90 (32.3) 69 (32.9) 58 (32.0) 
 Level of education, n (%)      
  High school diploma or less 147 (48.0) 129 (48.5) 135 (48.4) 120 (47.2) 83 (45.9) 
  More than a high school diploma 159 (52.0) 137 (51.5) 144 (51.60) 134 (52.8) 98 (54.1) 
 BMI, mean (SD) 32.50 (8.89) — 33.04 (9.32) 32.87 (9.50) 33.88 (9.90) 
 Feeding behaviors, mean (SD)      
  Restriction — 3.36 (0.93) 3.33 (0.92) — 3.15 (1.00) 
  Pressure to eat — 2.81 (1.15) 2.75 (1.08) — 2.49 (1.10) 
  Demandingness — 2.67 (0.56) 2.55 (0.56) — 2.28 (0.56) 
Child characteristics      
 Age, y, mean (SD) 4.24 (0.52) 4.90 (0.70) 5.94 (0.69) 7.91 (0.72) 8.55 (0.94) 
 Male sex, n (%) 158 (51.60) 136 (51.1) 144 (51.60) 130 (51.2) 98 (54.10) 
 BMIz , mean (SD) 0.79 (1.10) 0.83 (1.10) 0.84 (1.03) 0.96 (0.99) 0.91 (1.02) 
 Picky eating (CEBQ FF), mean (SD) 2.73 (0.84) — 2.72 (0.77) 2.86 (0.82) 2.68 (0.82) 

Sample size (N) indicates the largest sample used from that time point in any analyses; total sample size represented for each variable varies because of missing data. FF, Food Fussiness; —, not measured at this time point.

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