TABLE 2

. | Cost . | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

2003 . | 2006 . | 2009 . | 2012 . | 2016 . | P_{trend}^{a}
. | |

All bronchiolitis hospitalizations, children aged 0–23.9 mo | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 449 (421–478) | 735 (677–793) | 641 (588–694) | 701 (637–765) | 734 (660–809) | .42 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 3267 (3188–3345) | 3624 (3509–3740) | 3479 (3369–3589) | 3523 (3378–3669) | 4086 (3912–4260) | <.001 |

Sensitivity analyses | ||||||

Infants aged 0–11.9 mo | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 381 (356–405) | 639 (587–691) | 547 (499–594) | 583 (528–639) | 599 (540–659) | .42 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 3294 (3213–3376) | 3696 (3574–3817) | 3552 (3434–3670) | 3594 (3440–3749) | 4212 (4032–4392) | <.001 |

Bronchiolitis, primary diagnosis | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 413 (386–439) | 636 (585–687) | 522 (476–568) | 598 (543–652) | 596 (534–658) | .58 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 3235 (3156–3313) | 3563 (3449–3676) | 34,06 (3293–3518) | 3470 (3324–3618) | 3967 (3792–4141) | <.001 |

Children without pediatric complex chronic conditions | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 413 (388–439) | 613 (570–657) | 515 (477–554) | 542 (497–587) | 517 (469–565) | .58 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 3192 (3116–3278) | 3465 (3360–3569) | 3300 (3201–3398) | 3305 (3176–3435) | 3749 (3598–3899) | <.001 |

Bronchiolitis, primary diagnosis, by children aged 0–11.9 mo without pediatric complex chronic conditions | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 326 (305–347) | 467 (433–502) | 361 (331–391) | 388 (355–422) | 339 (308–371) | .90 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 3195 (3116–3274) | 3471 (3362–3579) | 3296 (3189–3402) | 3320 (3183–3458) | 3724 (3572–3876) | <.001 |

Children with a pediatric complex chronic condition | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 36 (33–40) | 121 (104–139) | 126 (108–144) | 159 (149–180) | 217 (187–248) | .046 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 5069 (4855–5284) | 7055 (6634–7476) | 6788 (6425–7151) | 6871 (6473–7270) | 7465 (7050–7880) | <.001 |

Stratification by use of mechanical ventilation | ||||||

With mechanical ventilation use | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 94 (75–113) | 114 (95–132) | 117 (100–134) | 141 (122–161) | 195 (163–226) | .046 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 10 093 (9053–11 134) | 25 212 (22 589–27 834) | 25 618 (23 415–27 820) | 21 445 (18 493–24 397) | 18 525 (15 841–21 208) | <.001 |

Invasive mechanical ventilation use | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 77 (59–95) | 103 (85–120) | 105 (90–121) | 118 (101–135) | 144 (120–168) | .046 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 10 376 (9301–11 450) | 29 243 (26 311–32 174) | 33 204 (30 390–36 019) | 29 671 (23 068–36 275) | 36 207 (33 191–39 223) | <.001 |

Noninvasive mechanical ventilation use | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 17 (14–20) | 11 (8–14) | 12 (9–14) | 23 (18–29) | 51 (36–66) | .15 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 9090 (6587–11 594) | 14 209 (12 737–15 681) | 12 125 (11 082–13 168) | 12 595 (11 541–13 648) | 11 446 (10 101–12 792) | <.001 |

Without mechanical ventilation use | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 440 (412–468) | 621 (577–666) | 524 (485–564) | 560 (512–607) | 539 (492–587) | .58 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 3242 (3163–3320) | 3478 (3373–3583) | 3321 (3221–3420) | 3337 (3204–3470) | 3747 (3597–3897) | <.001 |

Stratification by hospital designation | ||||||

Non–children’s hospital | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 349 (329–370) | 519 (482–556) | 434 (404–465) | 434 (399–469) | 405 (367–444) | .97 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 3054 (2983–3125) | 3304 (3208–3399) | 3113 (3034–3193) | 3060 (2952–3168) | 3412 (3279–3544) | <.001 |

Children’s hospital | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 100 (79–121) | 216 (170–262) | 207 (162–251) | 267 (213–322) | 329 (264–394) | .07 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 4696 (4421–4970) | 5619 (5111–6127) | 5883 (5406–6360) | 5805 (5146–6464) | 6506 (5924–7088) | <.001 |

. | Cost . | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

2003 . | 2006 . | 2009 . | 2012 . | 2016 . | P_{trend}^{a}
. | |

All bronchiolitis hospitalizations, children aged 0–23.9 mo | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 449 (421–478) | 735 (677–793) | 641 (588–694) | 701 (637–765) | 734 (660–809) | .42 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 3267 (3188–3345) | 3624 (3509–3740) | 3479 (3369–3589) | 3523 (3378–3669) | 4086 (3912–4260) | <.001 |

Sensitivity analyses | ||||||

Infants aged 0–11.9 mo | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 381 (356–405) | 639 (587–691) | 547 (499–594) | 583 (528–639) | 599 (540–659) | .42 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 3294 (3213–3376) | 3696 (3574–3817) | 3552 (3434–3670) | 3594 (3440–3749) | 4212 (4032–4392) | <.001 |

Bronchiolitis, primary diagnosis | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 413 (386–439) | 636 (585–687) | 522 (476–568) | 598 (543–652) | 596 (534–658) | .58 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 3235 (3156–3313) | 3563 (3449–3676) | 34,06 (3293–3518) | 3470 (3324–3618) | 3967 (3792–4141) | <.001 |

Children without pediatric complex chronic conditions | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 413 (388–439) | 613 (570–657) | 515 (477–554) | 542 (497–587) | 517 (469–565) | .58 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 3192 (3116–3278) | 3465 (3360–3569) | 3300 (3201–3398) | 3305 (3176–3435) | 3749 (3598–3899) | <.001 |

Bronchiolitis, primary diagnosis, by children aged 0–11.9 mo without pediatric complex chronic conditions | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 326 (305–347) | 467 (433–502) | 361 (331–391) | 388 (355–422) | 339 (308–371) | .90 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 3195 (3116–3274) | 3471 (3362–3579) | 3296 (3189–3402) | 3320 (3183–3458) | 3724 (3572–3876) | <.001 |

Children with a pediatric complex chronic condition | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 36 (33–40) | 121 (104–139) | 126 (108–144) | 159 (149–180) | 217 (187–248) | .046 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 5069 (4855–5284) | 7055 (6634–7476) | 6788 (6425–7151) | 6871 (6473–7270) | 7465 (7050–7880) | <.001 |

Stratification by use of mechanical ventilation | ||||||

With mechanical ventilation use | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 94 (75–113) | 114 (95–132) | 117 (100–134) | 141 (122–161) | 195 (163–226) | .046 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 10 093 (9053–11 134) | 25 212 (22 589–27 834) | 25 618 (23 415–27 820) | 21 445 (18 493–24 397) | 18 525 (15 841–21 208) | <.001 |

Invasive mechanical ventilation use | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 77 (59–95) | 103 (85–120) | 105 (90–121) | 118 (101–135) | 144 (120–168) | .046 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 10 376 (9301–11 450) | 29 243 (26 311–32 174) | 33 204 (30 390–36 019) | 29 671 (23 068–36 275) | 36 207 (33 191–39 223) | <.001 |

Noninvasive mechanical ventilation use | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 17 (14–20) | 11 (8–14) | 12 (9–14) | 23 (18–29) | 51 (36–66) | .15 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 9090 (6587–11 594) | 14 209 (12 737–15 681) | 12 125 (11 082–13 168) | 12 595 (11 541–13 648) | 11 446 (10 101–12 792) | <.001 |

Without mechanical ventilation use | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 440 (412–468) | 621 (577–666) | 524 (485–564) | 560 (512–607) | 539 (492–587) | .58 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 3242 (3163–3320) | 3478 (3373–3583) | 3321 (3221–3420) | 3337 (3204–3470) | 3747 (3597–3897) | <.001 |

Stratification by hospital designation | ||||||

Non–children’s hospital | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 349 (329–370) | 519 (482–556) | 434 (404–465) | 434 (399–469) | 405 (367–444) | .97 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 3054 (2983–3125) | 3304 (3208–3399) | 3113 (3034–3193) | 3060 (2952–3168) | 3412 (3279–3544) | <.001 |

Children’s hospital | ||||||

Total direct cost (95% CI)^{b} | 100 (79–121) | 216 (170–262) | 207 (162–251) | 267 (213–322) | 329 (264–394) | .07 |

Cost per hospitalization, geometric mean (95% CI)^{c}^{,}^{d} | 4696 (4421–4970) | 5619 (5111–6127) | 5883 (5406–6360) | 5805 (5146–6464) | 6506 (5924–7088) | <.001 |

a

*P* value for trend test. Cost was adjusted for inflation.

b

Data are presented as US dollars (million). Cost was adjusted for inflation.

c

Data are presented as US dollars. Cost was adjusted for inflation.

d

*P* value for trend test in unweighted samples because of the discontinuity in hospital identification codes between 2009 and 2012. Cost was adjusted for inflation.

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