TABLE 2

Distracted Driving Laws and MVC Fatalities Involving Drivers 16 to 19 Years Old, United States, 2007–2017

Law TypeNo. Fatal Crashes Involving DriversPopulationaUnadjusted Mean Fatal Crash Rate Per 100 000 PersonsIRR UnadjustedIRR AdjustedbIRR Adjusted 95% CI
16- to 19-y-old drivers (combined) 38 215 190 044 692 20.1 — — — 
 No texting law 21 480 87 756 898 24.5 Reference Reference — 
 Texting ban (primary enforcement) 13 952 87 785 549 15.9 0.65 0.71 0.67–0.76 
 Texting ban (secondary enforcement) 2783 14 502 245 19.2 0.77 0.85 0.77–0.95 
 No handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 33 905 154 304 510 22.0 Reference Reference — 
 Handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 4310 35 740 182 12.1 0.54 0.74 0.68–0.80 
 No all-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 21 088 95 690 748 22.0 Reference Reference — 
 All-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 17 127 94 353 944 18.1 0.76 0.97 0.91–1.02 
16-y-old drivers 5020 46 898 766 10.7 — — — 
 No texting law 2922 21 654 162 13.5 Reference — — 
 Texting ban (primary  enforcement) 1753 21 687 274 8.1 0.58 0.64 0.57–0.71 
 Texting ban (secondary enforcement) 345 3 557 330 9.7 0.78 0.74 0.61–0.90 
 No handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 4556 38 022 183 12.0 Reference — — 
 Handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 464 8 876 583 5.2 0.37 0.57 0.49–0.67 
 No all-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 2756 23 446 724 11.7 Reference — — 
 All-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 2264 23 452 042 9.6 0.76 1.11 1.00-1.23 
17-y-old drivers 8193 47 390 420 17.3 — — — 
 No texting law 4684 21 900 808 21.4 — — — 
 Texting ban (primary enforcement) 2919 21 892 506 13.3 0.62 0.67 0.61–0.72 
 Texting ban (secondary enforcement) 590 3 597 106 16.4 0.74 0.82 0.71–0.94 
 No handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 7225 38 386 404 18.8 — — — 
 Handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 968 9 004 016 10.7 0.51 0.67 0.60–0.75 
 No all-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 4615 23 735 570 19.4 — — — 
 All-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 3578 23 654 850 15.1 0.75 0.95 0.88–1.03 
18-y-old drivers 11 966 47 734 958 25.1 — — — 
 No texting law 6714 22 004 280 30.5 — — — 
 Texting ban (primary enforcement) 4359 22 105 162 19.7 0.65 0.71 0.66–0.75 
 Texting ban (secondary enforcement) 893 3 625 516 24.6 0.77 0.90 0.80–1.01 
 No handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 10 589 38 715 599 27.3 — — — 
 Handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 1377 9 019 359 15.3 0.55 0.73 0.67–0.81 
 No all-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 6669 24 122 770 27.6 — — — 
 All-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 5297 23 612 188 22.4 0.75 0.95 0.89–1.02 
19-y-old drivers 13 036 47 832 646 27.2 — — — 
 No texting law 7160 22 010 891 32.5 — — — 
 Texting ban (primary enforcement) 4921 22 099 462 22.3 0.70 0.74 0.69–0.79 
 Texting ban (secondary enforcement) 955 3 722 293 25.7 0.75 0.87 0.76–0.98 
 No handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 11 535 39 007 368 29.6 — — — 
 Handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 1501 8 825 278 17.0 0.61 0.78 0.71–0.86 
 No all-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 7048 24 241 172 29.1 — — — 
 All-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 5988 23 591 474 25.4 0.81 0.99 0.92–1.06 
40- to 55-y-old drivers 137 615 755 710 947 18.2 — — — 
 No texting law 70 332 341 437 976 20.6 — — — 
 Texting ban (primary enforcement) 56 519 354 592 378 15.9 0.79 0.88 0.83–0.93 
 Texting ban (secondary enforcement) 10 764 59 680 593 18.0 0.92 0.96 0.86–1.07 
 No handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 120 414 605 898 776 19.9 — — — 
 Handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 17 201 149 812 171 11.5 0.61 0.76 0.71–0.82 
 No all-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 72 974 380 933 627 19.2 — — — 
 All-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 64 641 374 777 320 17.2 0.85 0.97 0.91–1.02 
Law TypeNo. Fatal Crashes Involving DriversPopulationaUnadjusted Mean Fatal Crash Rate Per 100 000 PersonsIRR UnadjustedIRR AdjustedbIRR Adjusted 95% CI
16- to 19-y-old drivers (combined) 38 215 190 044 692 20.1 — — — 
 No texting law 21 480 87 756 898 24.5 Reference Reference — 
 Texting ban (primary enforcement) 13 952 87 785 549 15.9 0.65 0.71 0.67–0.76 
 Texting ban (secondary enforcement) 2783 14 502 245 19.2 0.77 0.85 0.77–0.95 
 No handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 33 905 154 304 510 22.0 Reference Reference — 
 Handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 4310 35 740 182 12.1 0.54 0.74 0.68–0.80 
 No all-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 21 088 95 690 748 22.0 Reference Reference — 
 All-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 17 127 94 353 944 18.1 0.76 0.97 0.91–1.02 
16-y-old drivers 5020 46 898 766 10.7 — — — 
 No texting law 2922 21 654 162 13.5 Reference — — 
 Texting ban (primary  enforcement) 1753 21 687 274 8.1 0.58 0.64 0.57–0.71 
 Texting ban (secondary enforcement) 345 3 557 330 9.7 0.78 0.74 0.61–0.90 
 No handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 4556 38 022 183 12.0 Reference — — 
 Handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 464 8 876 583 5.2 0.37 0.57 0.49–0.67 
 No all-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 2756 23 446 724 11.7 Reference — — 
 All-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 2264 23 452 042 9.6 0.76 1.11 1.00-1.23 
17-y-old drivers 8193 47 390 420 17.3 — — — 
 No texting law 4684 21 900 808 21.4 — — — 
 Texting ban (primary enforcement) 2919 21 892 506 13.3 0.62 0.67 0.61–0.72 
 Texting ban (secondary enforcement) 590 3 597 106 16.4 0.74 0.82 0.71–0.94 
 No handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 7225 38 386 404 18.8 — — — 
 Handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 968 9 004 016 10.7 0.51 0.67 0.60–0.75 
 No all-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 4615 23 735 570 19.4 — — — 
 All-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 3578 23 654 850 15.1 0.75 0.95 0.88–1.03 
18-y-old drivers 11 966 47 734 958 25.1 — — — 
 No texting law 6714 22 004 280 30.5 — — — 
 Texting ban (primary enforcement) 4359 22 105 162 19.7 0.65 0.71 0.66–0.75 
 Texting ban (secondary enforcement) 893 3 625 516 24.6 0.77 0.90 0.80–1.01 
 No handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 10 589 38 715 599 27.3 — — — 
 Handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 1377 9 019 359 15.3 0.55 0.73 0.67–0.81 
 No all-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 6669 24 122 770 27.6 — — — 
 All-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 5297 23 612 188 22.4 0.75 0.95 0.89–1.02 
19-y-old drivers 13 036 47 832 646 27.2 — — — 
 No texting law 7160 22 010 891 32.5 — — — 
 Texting ban (primary enforcement) 4921 22 099 462 22.3 0.70 0.74 0.69–0.79 
 Texting ban (secondary enforcement) 955 3 722 293 25.7 0.75 0.87 0.76–0.98 
 No handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 11 535 39 007 368 29.6 — — — 
 Handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 1501 8 825 278 17.0 0.61 0.78 0.71–0.86 
 No all-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 7048 24 241 172 29.1 — — — 
 All-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 5988 23 591 474 25.4 0.81 0.99 0.92–1.06 
40- to 55-y-old drivers 137 615 755 710 947 18.2 — — — 
 No texting law 70 332 341 437 976 20.6 — — — 
 Texting ban (primary enforcement) 56 519 354 592 378 15.9 0.79 0.88 0.83–0.93 
 Texting ban (secondary enforcement) 10 764 59 680 593 18.0 0.92 0.96 0.86–1.07 
 No handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 120 414 605 898 776 19.9 — — — 
 Handheld cellphone ban (all drivers) 17 201 149 812 171 11.5 0.61 0.76 0.71–0.82 
 No all-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 72 974 380 933 627 19.2 — — — 
 All-cellphone-use ban (novice drivers) 64 641 374 777 320 17.2 0.85 0.97 0.91–1.02 

—, not applicable.

a

Population includes the sum of all state age-based population for that group for all years in which a law was or was not coded for.

b

Multivariate binomial regression model included the following: texting law type (none, primary, secondary), handheld cellphone ban, all-cellphone-use ban for novice drivers,21  GDL law type (weak, moderate, strong),20  rural interstate highway speed limit law (≤65 or >65 miles per hour), primary enforcement seatbelt laws, immediate ALR law, annual unemployment rate, and annual motor fuel usage.24–27 .

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