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TABLE 1

Demographics for Individual-Level Characteristics

N = 228 507n (%)
Sex  
 Female 109 197 (51.4) 
 Male 103 210 (48.6) 
Race and ethnicity  
 White 139 724 (61.7) 
 Other race 88 783 (38.3) 
Parental education  
 Less than a BA 99 693 (48.9) 
 BA or higher 111 003 (51.1) 
Grade point average  
 B− or higher 177 625 (82.8) 
 C+ or lower 35 855 (17.2) 
Binge drinking  
 No 160 383 (76.4) 
 Yes 50 831 (23.6) 
Cigarette use  
 No 179 747 (81.0) 
 Yes 41 553 (19.0) 
Marijuana use  
 No 170 824 (78.9) 
 Yes 46 583 (21.1) 
Medical use, lifetimea  
 No 28 770 (82.9) 
 Yes 5825 (17.1) 
POM, past year  
 No 199 809 (92.1) 
 Yes 16 951 (7.9) 
Cohort year  
 2002–2005 59 344 (26.0) 
 2006–2009 58 791 (25.7) 
 2010–2013 57 505 (25.2) 
 2014–2017 52 867 (23.1) 
N = 228 507n (%)
Sex  
 Female 109 197 (51.4) 
 Male 103 210 (48.6) 
Race and ethnicity  
 White 139 724 (61.7) 
 Other race 88 783 (38.3) 
Parental education  
 Less than a BA 99 693 (48.9) 
 BA or higher 111 003 (51.1) 
Grade point average  
 B− or higher 177 625 (82.8) 
 C+ or lower 35 855 (17.2) 
Binge drinking  
 No 160 383 (76.4) 
 Yes 50 831 (23.6) 
Cigarette use  
 No 179 747 (81.0) 
 Yes 41 553 (19.0) 
Marijuana use  
 No 170 824 (78.9) 
 Yes 46 583 (21.1) 
Medical use, lifetimea  
 No 28 770 (82.9) 
 Yes 5825 (17.1) 
POM, past year  
 No 199 809 (92.1) 
 Yes 16 951 (7.9) 
Cohort year  
 2002–2005 59 344 (26.0) 
 2006–2009 58 791 (25.7) 
 2010–2013 57 505 (25.2) 
 2014–2017 52 867 (23.1) 

The following items had missing data: sex (7.0% missing across the 12th-grade sample), highest level of parental education (7.8% missing across the 12th-grade sample), grade point average (6.6% missing across the 12th-grade sample), past 2 wk binge drinking (7.6% missing across the 12th-grade sample), past 30 d marijuana use (4.9% missing across the 12th-grade sample), past 30 d cigarette use (3.1% missing across the 12th-grade sample), past-year POM (5.1% missing across the 12th-grade sample), and lifetime medical use of prescription opioids (9.5% missing across the 12th-grade sample). BA, bachelor’s degree; n, unweighted sample size; %, weighted percent (only at the individual level).

a

Lifetime prescribed medical use of opioids was asked on only 1 of the 6 forms for 12th-graders. Accordingly, the total number of respondents for the analytic sample when specifically assessing individual-level lifetime medical use was 38 238.

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