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TABLE 4

Prevalence of POM and Medical Use of Prescription Opioids by Individual-Level Characteristics, 2002–2017

Individual-Level CharacteristicsPast-Year POM, % (95% CI)χ2PaLifetime Medical Use of Prescription Opioids, % (95% CI)χ2Pa
Sex  <.001  <.001 
 Female 6.6 (6.3–6.9)  18.1 (17.3–18.9)  
 Male 9.3 (8.8–9.6)  16.0 (15.2–16.9)  
Race and ethnicity  <.001  <.001 
 White, non-Hispanic 9.7 (9.3–10.0)  21.4 (20.6–22.2)  
 Other race 4.7 (4.4–4.9)  9.1 (8.4–9.8)  
Highest parental education  .759  <.001 
 Less than a BA 8.0 (7.6–8.3)  15.1 (14.3–15.9)  
 BA or higher 8.0 (7.7–8.4)  19.6 (18.8–20.5)  
Grade point average  <.001  <.001 
 B− or higher 7.0 (6.7–7.3)  17.7 (17.0–18.4)  
 C+ or lower 12.1 (11.5–12.8)  14.9 (13.7–16.2)  
Binge drinking  <.001  <.001 
 No 4.1 (4.0–4.3)  15.6 (15.0–16.3)  
 Yes 20.3 (19.6–21.0)  24.3 (22.9–25.6)  
Cigarette use  <.001  <.001 
 No 4.2 (4.0–4.4)  15.8 (15.1–16.4)  
 Yes 24.1 (23.4–24.9)  23.7 (22.4–25.1)  
Marijuana use  <.001  <.001 
 No 3.5 (3.4–3.7)  15.7 (15.1–16.4)  
 Yes 24.7 (23.8–25.6)  22.9 (21.7–24.2)  
Medical use of prescription opioids, lifetime  <.001   
 No 3.2 (3.0–3.5)  —  
 Yes 26.6 (25.2–28.1)  —  
POM, past-year    <.001 
 No —  13.4 (12.9–14.0)  
 Yes —  62.4 (60.2–64.7)  
Cohort year  <.001  <.001 
 2002–2005 9.0 (8.4–9.7)  18.1 (16.8–19.3)  
 2006–2009 9.1 (8.5–9.7)  17.3 (16.1–18.6)  
 2010–2013 8.1 (7.6–8.6)  17.9 (16.7–19.3)  
 2014–2017 5.1 (4.7–5.5)  14.6 (13.4–15.8)  
Individual-Level CharacteristicsPast-Year POM, % (95% CI)χ2PaLifetime Medical Use of Prescription Opioids, % (95% CI)χ2Pa
Sex  <.001  <.001 
 Female 6.6 (6.3–6.9)  18.1 (17.3–18.9)  
 Male 9.3 (8.8–9.6)  16.0 (15.2–16.9)  
Race and ethnicity  <.001  <.001 
 White, non-Hispanic 9.7 (9.3–10.0)  21.4 (20.6–22.2)  
 Other race 4.7 (4.4–4.9)  9.1 (8.4–9.8)  
Highest parental education  .759  <.001 
 Less than a BA 8.0 (7.6–8.3)  15.1 (14.3–15.9)  
 BA or higher 8.0 (7.7–8.4)  19.6 (18.8–20.5)  
Grade point average  <.001  <.001 
 B− or higher 7.0 (6.7–7.3)  17.7 (17.0–18.4)  
 C+ or lower 12.1 (11.5–12.8)  14.9 (13.7–16.2)  
Binge drinking  <.001  <.001 
 No 4.1 (4.0–4.3)  15.6 (15.0–16.3)  
 Yes 20.3 (19.6–21.0)  24.3 (22.9–25.6)  
Cigarette use  <.001  <.001 
 No 4.2 (4.0–4.4)  15.8 (15.1–16.4)  
 Yes 24.1 (23.4–24.9)  23.7 (22.4–25.1)  
Marijuana use  <.001  <.001 
 No 3.5 (3.4–3.7)  15.7 (15.1–16.4)  
 Yes 24.7 (23.8–25.6)  22.9 (21.7–24.2)  
Medical use of prescription opioids, lifetime  <.001   
 No 3.2 (3.0–3.5)  —  
 Yes 26.6 (25.2–28.1)  —  
POM, past-year    <.001 
 No —  13.4 (12.9–14.0)  
 Yes —  62.4 (60.2–64.7)  
Cohort year  <.001  <.001 
 2002–2005 9.0 (8.4–9.7)  18.1 (16.8–19.3)  
 2006–2009 9.1 (8.5–9.7)  17.3 (16.1–18.6)  
 2010–2013 8.1 (7.6–8.6)  17.9 (16.7–19.3)  
 2014–2017 5.1 (4.7–5.5)  14.6 (13.4–15.8)  

BA, bachelor’s degree; —, not applicable.

a

χ2P values indicate differences in prevalence rates of POM and medical use of prescription opioids by individual-level characteristics.

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