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TABLE 5

Correlates of Individual-Level POM by Individual- and School-Level Characteristics

Past-Year POM (Individual-Level Correlates Only), Model 1 (n = 183 479), aOR (95% CI)Past-Year POM (School-Level Correlates Only), Model 2 (n = 216 757), aOR (95% CI)Past-Year POM (Full Model), Model 3 (n = 183 479), aOR (95% CI)
Individual level    
 Sex    
  Female Reference — Reference 
  Male 1.13 (1.07–1.18)*** — 1.10 (1.05–1.15)*** 
 Race and ethnicity    
  White Reference — Reference 
  Nonwhite 0.568 (0.530–0.610)*** — 0.630 (0.589–0.675)*** 
 Highest parental education    
  Less than a BA Reference — Reference 
  BA or higher 0.973 (0.926–1.02) — 0.966 (0.921–1.01) 
 Grade point average    
  B− or higher Reference — Reference 
  C+ or lower 1.22 (1.15–1.29)*** — 1.21 (1.14–1.28)*** 
 Binge drinking    
  No Reference — Reference 
  Yes 2.10 (1.99–2.21)*** — 2.11 (2.01–2.23)*** 
 Cigarette use    
  No Reference — Reference 
  Yes 2.87 (2.70–3.04)*** — 2.85 (2.70–3.02)*** 
 Marijuana use    
  No Reference — Reference 
  Yes 4.51 (4.26–4.77)*** — 4.51 (4.26–4.78)*** 
 Cohort year (individual and school)    
  2002–2005 Reference Reference Reference 
  2006–2009 1.14 (1.03–1.26)** 1.09 (1.02–1.17)* 1.14 (1.05–1.25)** 
  2010–2013 0.999 (0.901–1.10) 0.963 (0.889–1.04) 0.962 (0.872–1.06) 
  2014–2017 0.709 (0.631–0.797)*** 0.787 (0.703–0.881)*** 0.743 (0.654–0.845)*** 
School level    
 Private status    
  Public school — Reference Reference 
  Private school — 0.977 (0.883–1.08) 0.969 (0.860–1.09) 
 Urbanicity of school    
  Urban — Reference Reference 
  Suburban — 1.08 (1.01–1.15)* 1.11 (1.02–1.21)** 
  Rural — 1.05 (0.976–1.14) 1.10 (1.00–1.22)* 
 School size    
  Small — Reference Reference 
  Medium — 0.982 (0.901–1.07) 1.00 (0.903–1.11) 
  High — 0.935 (0.857–1.02) 0.969 (0.872–1.07) 
 US Census region    
  Northeast — Reference Reference 
  Midwest — 1.10 (1.01–1.21)* 1.14 (1.02–1.27)* 
  South — 1.19 (1.09–1.29)*** 1.29 (1.16–1.42)*** 
  West — 1.37 (1.24–1.52)*** 1.54 (1.37–1.74)*** 
 Percentage with low grades    
  Low — Reference Reference 
  Medium — 1.06 (0.991–1.14) 1.04 (0.957–1.13) 
  High — 1.07 (0.991–1.16) 1.03 (0.935–1.13) 
 Percentage male    
  Low — Reference Reference 
  Medium — 1.06 (1.00–1.13)* 1.05 (0.981–1.14) 
  High — 1.13 (1.06–1.21)*** 1.13 (1.04–1.22)** 
 Parental education (percentage with a BA or higher)    
  Low — Reference Reference 
  Medium — 1.03 (0.960–1.10) 1.01 (0.933–1.10) 
  High — 1.03 (0.950–1.13) 1.01 (0.915–1.12) 
 Percentage white    
  Low — Reference Reference 
  Medium — 1.32 (1.22–1.43)*** 1.12 (1.01–1.23)* 
  High — 1.46 (1.34–1.60)*** 1.20 (1.08–1.34)*** 
 Percentage binge drinking    
  None — Reference Reference 
  Low — 1.04 (0.673–1.61) 0.811 (0.489–1.34) 
  Medium — 1.18 (0.760–1.83) 0.808 (0.486–1.34) 
  High — 1.27 (0.815–1.97) 0.762 (0.456–1.27) 
 Percentage cigarette use    
  None — Reference Reference 
  Low — 1.41 (0.797–2.50) 1.00 (0.523–1.92) 
  Medium — 1.90 (1.07–3.39)* 1.11 (0.578–2.13) 
  High — 2.10 (1.18–3.76)* 1.05 (0.547–2.04) 
 Percentage marijuana use    
  None — Reference Reference 
  Low — 2.73 (1.75–4.24)*** 1.90 (1.14–3.16)* 
  Medium — 3.76 (2.42–5.86)*** 2.16 (1.29–3.61)** 
  High — 4.32 (2.76–6.76)*** 2.09 (1.24–3.53)** 
 Percentage medical use of prescription opioids    
  None — Reference Reference 
  Low — 1.12 (0.984–1.29) 1.12 (0.969–1.31) 
  Medium — 1.34 (1.16–1.54)*** 1.37 (1.17–1.60)*** 
  High — 1.53 (1.33–1.76)*** 1.57 (1.35–1.83)*** 
Past-Year POM (Individual-Level Correlates Only), Model 1 (n = 183 479), aOR (95% CI)Past-Year POM (School-Level Correlates Only), Model 2 (n = 216 757), aOR (95% CI)Past-Year POM (Full Model), Model 3 (n = 183 479), aOR (95% CI)
Individual level    
 Sex    
  Female Reference — Reference 
  Male 1.13 (1.07–1.18)*** — 1.10 (1.05–1.15)*** 
 Race and ethnicity    
  White Reference — Reference 
  Nonwhite 0.568 (0.530–0.610)*** — 0.630 (0.589–0.675)*** 
 Highest parental education    
  Less than a BA Reference — Reference 
  BA or higher 0.973 (0.926–1.02) — 0.966 (0.921–1.01) 
 Grade point average    
  B− or higher Reference — Reference 
  C+ or lower 1.22 (1.15–1.29)*** — 1.21 (1.14–1.28)*** 
 Binge drinking    
  No Reference — Reference 
  Yes 2.10 (1.99–2.21)*** — 2.11 (2.01–2.23)*** 
 Cigarette use    
  No Reference — Reference 
  Yes 2.87 (2.70–3.04)*** — 2.85 (2.70–3.02)*** 
 Marijuana use    
  No Reference — Reference 
  Yes 4.51 (4.26–4.77)*** — 4.51 (4.26–4.78)*** 
 Cohort year (individual and school)    
  2002–2005 Reference Reference Reference 
  2006–2009 1.14 (1.03–1.26)** 1.09 (1.02–1.17)* 1.14 (1.05–1.25)** 
  2010–2013 0.999 (0.901–1.10) 0.963 (0.889–1.04) 0.962 (0.872–1.06) 
  2014–2017 0.709 (0.631–0.797)*** 0.787 (0.703–0.881)*** 0.743 (0.654–0.845)*** 
School level    
 Private status    
  Public school — Reference Reference 
  Private school — 0.977 (0.883–1.08) 0.969 (0.860–1.09) 
 Urbanicity of school    
  Urban — Reference Reference 
  Suburban — 1.08 (1.01–1.15)* 1.11 (1.02–1.21)** 
  Rural — 1.05 (0.976–1.14) 1.10 (1.00–1.22)* 
 School size    
  Small — Reference Reference 
  Medium — 0.982 (0.901–1.07) 1.00 (0.903–1.11) 
  High — 0.935 (0.857–1.02) 0.969 (0.872–1.07) 
 US Census region    
  Northeast — Reference Reference 
  Midwest — 1.10 (1.01–1.21)* 1.14 (1.02–1.27)* 
  South — 1.19 (1.09–1.29)*** 1.29 (1.16–1.42)*** 
  West — 1.37 (1.24–1.52)*** 1.54 (1.37–1.74)*** 
 Percentage with low grades    
  Low — Reference Reference 
  Medium — 1.06 (0.991–1.14) 1.04 (0.957–1.13) 
  High — 1.07 (0.991–1.16) 1.03 (0.935–1.13) 
 Percentage male    
  Low — Reference Reference 
  Medium — 1.06 (1.00–1.13)* 1.05 (0.981–1.14) 
  High — 1.13 (1.06–1.21)*** 1.13 (1.04–1.22)** 
 Parental education (percentage with a BA or higher)    
  Low — Reference Reference 
  Medium — 1.03 (0.960–1.10) 1.01 (0.933–1.10) 
  High — 1.03 (0.950–1.13) 1.01 (0.915–1.12) 
 Percentage white    
  Low — Reference Reference 
  Medium — 1.32 (1.22–1.43)*** 1.12 (1.01–1.23)* 
  High — 1.46 (1.34–1.60)*** 1.20 (1.08–1.34)*** 
 Percentage binge drinking    
  None — Reference Reference 
  Low — 1.04 (0.673–1.61) 0.811 (0.489–1.34) 
  Medium — 1.18 (0.760–1.83) 0.808 (0.486–1.34) 
  High — 1.27 (0.815–1.97) 0.762 (0.456–1.27) 
 Percentage cigarette use    
  None — Reference Reference 
  Low — 1.41 (0.797–2.50) 1.00 (0.523–1.92) 
  Medium — 1.90 (1.07–3.39)* 1.11 (0.578–2.13) 
  High — 2.10 (1.18–3.76)* 1.05 (0.547–2.04) 
 Percentage marijuana use    
  None — Reference Reference 
  Low — 2.73 (1.75–4.24)*** 1.90 (1.14–3.16)* 
  Medium — 3.76 (2.42–5.86)*** 2.16 (1.29–3.61)** 
  High — 4.32 (2.76–6.76)*** 2.09 (1.24–3.53)** 
 Percentage medical use of prescription opioids    
  None — Reference Reference 
  Low — 1.12 (0.984–1.29) 1.12 (0.969–1.31) 
  Medium — 1.34 (1.16–1.54)*** 1.37 (1.17–1.60)*** 
  High — 1.53 (1.33–1.76)*** 1.57 (1.35–1.83)*** 

“Reference” refers to the reference category. Sample sizes vary because of missing data. BA, bachelor’s degree; —, variable not included in the model.

*

P < .05.

**

P < .01.

***

P < .001.

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