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TABLE 1

Model Results Testing Differences on Adult Outcomes as a Function of Having Been Physically Abused or Not in Early Childhood

Adult OutcomeWeighted Proportion or Mean (SE)Impact of Early Abuse
Early Abuse (n = 93)No Early Abuse (n = 753)Odds Ratio or SEP
Education or economic stability     
 Ever received special education services 46.90 20.76 3.20 .001 
 Ever repeated a grade 54.06 28.49 2.14 .01 
 Completed college or more 13.65 30.13 0.72 .41 
 Currently full-time employed or enrolled in higher education in last year 53.23 68.74 0.66 .13 
 Received government assistance in past 12 mo, self report 19.52 9.88 2.00 .05 
Physical health     
 General health index, average self and peer report 0.74 (0.02) 0.81 (0.01) −0.10 .03 
 Risky sexual behavior scale, self report 9.31 (1.48) 7.60 (0.45) 0.04 .35 
Mental health, self or peer report     
 Any DSM externalizing clinical range 24.28 11.25 2.42 .01 
  DSM clinical range, antisocial personality 19.87 7.71 2.80 .01 
  DSM clinical range, ADHD problems 16.12 5.79 3.15 .001 
 Any DSM internalizing clinical range 40.35 22.93 2.10 .01 
  DSM clinical range, anxiety 13.01 6.25 1.99 .08 
  DSM clinical range, avoidant personality 12.50 7.76 1.60 .21 
  DSM clinical range, depression 16.15 9.73 1.14 .69 
  DSM clinical range, somatic 22.37 12.99 1.68 .12 
 Happiness 22.65 (0.52) 23.89 (0.17) −0.05 .23 
Substance use, self or peer report     
 Weekly hazardous drinking past year 9.12 8.84 0.93 .89 
 Used marijuana weekly past year 16.28 14.77 0.79 .52 
 Used other drugs weekly past year, excluding marijuana 11.43 7.75 1.06 .89 
Criminal behavior     
 Lifetime any drug conviction, court record data 19.66 10.34 1.62 .16 
 Lifetime any property or public order conviction, court record data 33.37 23.10 1.32 .28 
 Lifetime any violent crime convictions, court record data 26.69 15.95 1.37 .26 
 Convicted in past 12 mo, self or peer report 17.96 7.15 2.61 .01 
Adult OutcomeWeighted Proportion or Mean (SE)Impact of Early Abuse
Early Abuse (n = 93)No Early Abuse (n = 753)Odds Ratio or SEP
Education or economic stability     
 Ever received special education services 46.90 20.76 3.20 .001 
 Ever repeated a grade 54.06 28.49 2.14 .01 
 Completed college or more 13.65 30.13 0.72 .41 
 Currently full-time employed or enrolled in higher education in last year 53.23 68.74 0.66 .13 
 Received government assistance in past 12 mo, self report 19.52 9.88 2.00 .05 
Physical health     
 General health index, average self and peer report 0.74 (0.02) 0.81 (0.01) −0.10 .03 
 Risky sexual behavior scale, self report 9.31 (1.48) 7.60 (0.45) 0.04 .35 
Mental health, self or peer report     
 Any DSM externalizing clinical range 24.28 11.25 2.42 .01 
  DSM clinical range, antisocial personality 19.87 7.71 2.80 .01 
  DSM clinical range, ADHD problems 16.12 5.79 3.15 .001 
 Any DSM internalizing clinical range 40.35 22.93 2.10 .01 
  DSM clinical range, anxiety 13.01 6.25 1.99 .08 
  DSM clinical range, avoidant personality 12.50 7.76 1.60 .21 
  DSM clinical range, depression 16.15 9.73 1.14 .69 
  DSM clinical range, somatic 22.37 12.99 1.68 .12 
 Happiness 22.65 (0.52) 23.89 (0.17) −0.05 .23 
Substance use, self or peer report     
 Weekly hazardous drinking past year 9.12 8.84 0.93 .89 
 Used marijuana weekly past year 16.28 14.77 0.79 .52 
 Used other drugs weekly past year, excluding marijuana 11.43 7.75 1.06 .89 
Criminal behavior     
 Lifetime any drug conviction, court record data 19.66 10.34 1.62 .16 
 Lifetime any property or public order conviction, court record data 33.37 23.10 1.32 .28 
 Lifetime any violent crime convictions, court record data 26.69 15.95 1.37 .26 
 Convicted in past 12 mo, self or peer report 17.96 7.15 2.61 .01 

Analyses controlled for sex, race and ethnicity, age at interview, and several variables capturing other early life circumstances, including living in a single parent household, family SES, and child health problems and family stress experienced during the child’s first 5 years of life. ADHD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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