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TABLE 1

Baseline Descriptive Statistics by Site

NYC (n = 200)Pittsburgh (n = 203)
Child characteristics   
 Female sex, % 49.0 50.3 
 Race and/or ethnicity, %   
  Asian 1.5 
  Black/African American 8.2 90.1 
  White 1.0 5.0 
  Latinx 83.7 2.0 
  Other 5.6 3. 
 Child age in mo at assessment, mean (SD) 7.2 (1.6) 7.6 (1.5) 
Primary caregiver characteristics, %   
 Race and/or ethnicity   
  Asian American 3.1 0.0 
  Black/African American 7.6 81.2 
  White 2.0 12.4 
  Latinx 84.3 3.5 
  Other 3.1 3.0 
 Marital status   
  Married 31.8 4.4 
  Cohabitating partner 48.7 36.5 
  Noncohabitating partner 10.8 35.0 
  Biological father current partner 97.6 94.2 
 Education   
  High school graduate 56.1 83.7 
  Some college 31.6 37.0 
 Primiparous birth 35.5 32.5 
 Teenage mother <20 y 4.0 8.9 
Family household characteristics   
 Income-to-needs ratioa, mean (SD) 0.82 (0.60) 0.64 (0.60) 
 Crowding ratiob, mean (SD) 1.40 (0.57) 0.86 (0.31) 
 Language of baseline interview, Spanish, % 61.4 0.0 
NYC (n = 200)Pittsburgh (n = 203)
Child characteristics   
 Female sex, % 49.0 50.3 
 Race and/or ethnicity, %   
  Asian 1.5 
  Black/African American 8.2 90.1 
  White 1.0 5.0 
  Latinx 83.7 2.0 
  Other 5.6 3. 
 Child age in mo at assessment, mean (SD) 7.2 (1.6) 7.6 (1.5) 
Primary caregiver characteristics, %   
 Race and/or ethnicity   
  Asian American 3.1 0.0 
  Black/African American 7.6 81.2 
  White 2.0 12.4 
  Latinx 84.3 3.5 
  Other 3.1 3.0 
 Marital status   
  Married 31.8 4.4 
  Cohabitating partner 48.7 36.5 
  Noncohabitating partner 10.8 35.0 
  Biological father current partner 97.6 94.2 
 Education   
  High school graduate 56.1 83.7 
  Some college 31.6 37.0 
 Primiparous birth 35.5 32.5 
 Teenage mother <20 y 4.0 8.9 
Family household characteristics   
 Income-to-needs ratioa, mean (SD) 0.82 (0.60) 0.64 (0.60) 
 Crowding ratiob, mean (SD) 1.40 (0.57) 0.86 (0.31) 
 Language of baseline interview, Spanish, % 61.4 0.0 
a

Income-to-needs ratio of 1.00 indicates that a family is right at the poverty threshold; 2.00 indicates that a family is 200% above that threshold.

b

The crowding ratio indicates how many people live per room in the dwelling. A ratio >1 indicates household crowding.

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