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TABLE 4

Impacts on Cognitive Stimulation and Parent-Child Interactions at 6 Months by Site

NYC SamplePittsburgh SampleΔ Impact by Sitec
TreatmentControlImpacta (95% CI)Effect SizebPTreatmentControlImpacta (95% CI)Effect SizebP
Survey outcomes            
 Cognitive stimulation (StimQ) 17.11 15.45 1.66 (−0.06 to 3.38) 0.28 .06 17.22 15.58 1.63 (0.03 to 3.23) 0.27 .046 0.03 
  READ 6.34 5.57 0.87 (−0.09 to 1.83) 0.25 .07 6.70 5.97 0.74 (−0.28 to 1.75) 0.21 .15 0.13 
   READ quantity 3.35 3.03 0.32 (−0.28 to 0.91) 0.15 .29 3.57 3.19 0.38 (−0.27 to 1.04) 0.18 .25 0.06 
   READ quality 1.54 1.20 0.34 (0.02 to 0.67) 0.32 .04 1.57 1.35 0.22 (−09 to 0.52) 0.20 .16 0.12 
   READ diverse concepts 1.45 1.24 0.21 (0.001 to 0.42) 0.27 .049 1.57 1.43 0.14 (−0.08 to 0.36) 0.18 .22 0.07 
  PVR 7.72 7.43 0.28 (−0.61 to 1.17) 0.09 .53 7.66 6.98 0.68 (−0.08 to 1.45) 0.23 .08 0.40 
   PVR everyday routines 3.31 3.41 −0.10 (−0.63 to 0.43) −0.05 .71 3.55 3.24 0.31 (−0.20 to 0.83) 0.17 .23 0.41 
   PVR play and pretend 4.40 4.02 0.37 (−0.16 to 0.91) 0.21 .17 4.11 3.74 0.37 (−0.10 to 0.84) 0.21 .12 
  PIDA 2.99 2.54 0.45 (0.07 to 0.82) 0.34 .02 2.85 2.64 0.21 (−0.16 to 0.59) 0.16 .27 0.24 
 Parental warmth (PYB) 6.63 6.58 0.04 (−0.11 to 0.19) 0.09 .58 6.78 6.76 0.02 (−0.08 to 0.12) 0.04 .70 0.02 
Observational outcomes            
 Parent-child interaction (PCIRS-IA)            
  Sensitivity 4.01 3.85 0.16 (−0.20 to 0.52) 0.14 .38 4.20 4.01 0.19 (−0.15 to 0.54) 0.17 .27 0.03 
  Intrusiveness 3.65 3.32 0.33 (−0.08 to 0.74) 0.24 .12 2.83 2.96 −0.13 (−0.55 to 0.30) −0.09 .56 0.46 
  Cognitive development 3.62 3.14 0.48 (0.13 to 0.84) 0.47 .01 3.63 3.36 0.27 (−0.02 to 0.55) 0.26 .07 0.21 
  Language quantity 4.55 3.44 1.11 (0.58 to 1.64) 0.70 .00 3.92 3.77 0.15 (−0.25 to 0.55) 0.09 .47 0.96 
  Language quality 4.13 3.35 0.78 (0.31 to 1.26) 0.52 .00 3.92 3.59 0.33 (−0.09 to 0.75) 0.22 .12 0.45 
  Cognitive stimulation factor 4.08 3.31 0.77 (0.34 to 1.20) 0.60 .00 3.82 3.57 0.25 (−0.08 to 0.58) 0.20 .14 0.52 
NYC SamplePittsburgh SampleΔ Impact by Sitec
TreatmentControlImpacta (95% CI)Effect SizebPTreatmentControlImpacta (95% CI)Effect SizebP
Survey outcomes            
 Cognitive stimulation (StimQ) 17.11 15.45 1.66 (−0.06 to 3.38) 0.28 .06 17.22 15.58 1.63 (0.03 to 3.23) 0.27 .046 0.03 
  READ 6.34 5.57 0.87 (−0.09 to 1.83) 0.25 .07 6.70 5.97 0.74 (−0.28 to 1.75) 0.21 .15 0.13 
   READ quantity 3.35 3.03 0.32 (−0.28 to 0.91) 0.15 .29 3.57 3.19 0.38 (−0.27 to 1.04) 0.18 .25 0.06 
   READ quality 1.54 1.20 0.34 (0.02 to 0.67) 0.32 .04 1.57 1.35 0.22 (−09 to 0.52) 0.20 .16 0.12 
   READ diverse concepts 1.45 1.24 0.21 (0.001 to 0.42) 0.27 .049 1.57 1.43 0.14 (−0.08 to 0.36) 0.18 .22 0.07 
  PVR 7.72 7.43 0.28 (−0.61 to 1.17) 0.09 .53 7.66 6.98 0.68 (−0.08 to 1.45) 0.23 .08 0.40 
   PVR everyday routines 3.31 3.41 −0.10 (−0.63 to 0.43) −0.05 .71 3.55 3.24 0.31 (−0.20 to 0.83) 0.17 .23 0.41 
   PVR play and pretend 4.40 4.02 0.37 (−0.16 to 0.91) 0.21 .17 4.11 3.74 0.37 (−0.10 to 0.84) 0.21 .12 
  PIDA 2.99 2.54 0.45 (0.07 to 0.82) 0.34 .02 2.85 2.64 0.21 (−0.16 to 0.59) 0.16 .27 0.24 
 Parental warmth (PYB) 6.63 6.58 0.04 (−0.11 to 0.19) 0.09 .58 6.78 6.76 0.02 (−0.08 to 0.12) 0.04 .70 0.02 
Observational outcomes            
 Parent-child interaction (PCIRS-IA)            
  Sensitivity 4.01 3.85 0.16 (−0.20 to 0.52) 0.14 .38 4.20 4.01 0.19 (−0.15 to 0.54) 0.17 .27 0.03 
  Intrusiveness 3.65 3.32 0.33 (−0.08 to 0.74) 0.24 .12 2.83 2.96 −0.13 (−0.55 to 0.30) −0.09 .56 0.46 
  Cognitive development 3.62 3.14 0.48 (0.13 to 0.84) 0.47 .01 3.63 3.36 0.27 (−0.02 to 0.55) 0.26 .07 0.21 
  Language quantity 4.55 3.44 1.11 (0.58 to 1.64) 0.70 .00 3.92 3.77 0.15 (−0.25 to 0.55) 0.09 .47 0.96 
  Language quality 4.13 3.35 0.78 (0.31 to 1.26) 0.52 .00 3.92 3.59 0.33 (−0.09 to 0.75) 0.22 .12 0.45 
  Cognitive stimulation factor 4.08 3.31 0.77 (0.34 to 1.20) 0.60 .00 3.82 3.57 0.25 (−0.08 to 0.58) 0.20 .14 0.52 

NYC sample (n = 183 survey, 179 observations), Pittsburgh (n = 179 survey, 180 observations). PYB, Parenting Your Baby: Supporting and Enjoying.

a

Impact based on difference in raw scores.

b

Effect size calculated by using Cohen’s d.

c

Difference in treatment impact by site.

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