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TABLE 2

Bivariable and Multivariable Analysis of the Association of Race and Ethnicity with Antibiotic Provision for Viral ARTIs

DemographicOR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)
Race and ethnicity   
 NH white Reference Reference 
 NH black 0.41 (0.35–0.49)b 0.44 (0.36–0.53)b 
 Hispanic 0.57 (0.47–0.69)b 0.65 (0.53–0.81)b 
 Other 0.64 (0.50–0.82)b 0.68 (0.52–0.87)b 
Sex   
Male Reference Reference 
Female 1.02 (0.90–1.16) 1.03 (0.90–1.17) 
Age group   
 0–1 Reference Reference 
 2–4 1.01 (0.86–1.18) 1.09 (0.93–1.28) 
 5–9 1.13 (0.94–1.37) 1.19 (0.98–1.44) 
 10–18 1.34 (1.07–1.67)b 1.40 (1.11–1.77)b 
Insurance status   
 Private Reference Reference 
 Medicaid 0.61 (0.52–0.71)b 0.78 (0.66–0.93)b 
 Self-pay 0.59 (0.41–0.85)b 0.73 (0.50–1.05) 
 Other 0.87 (0.47–1.62) 0.95 (0.51–1.78) 
Triage acuity level   
 5 (least acute) Reference Reference 
 4 1.10 (0.93–1.31) 1.09 (0.92–1.30) 
 3 1.55 (1.27–1.89)b 1.44 (1.16–1.78)b 
 2 2.02 (1.49–2.72)b 1.72 (1.25–2.37)b 
 1 (most acute) — — 
ED site   
 A Reference Reference 
 B 0.57 (0.40–0.82)b 0.90 (0.62–1.31) 
 C 0.81 (0.60–1.10) 0.86 (0.62–1.19) 
 D 0.85 (0.63–1.14) 1.02 (0.75–1.39) 
 E 1.61 (1.17–2.21)b 1.21 (0.87–1.69) 
 F 1.21 (0.92–1.60) 1.49 (1.11–1.98)b 
 G 0.85 (0.61–1.20) 0.66 (0.46–0.95)b 
Provider type   
 PEM attending Reference Reference 
 Pediatrician 1.04 (0.85–1.27) 1.19 (0.95–1.48) 
 General emergency medicine attending 0.72 (0.09–5.85) 0.84 (0.10–6.90) 
 Fellow 0.97 (0.68–1.37) 1.06 (0.75–1.50) 
 PA/NP 0.67 (0.52–0.86)b 0.89 (0.68–1.18) 
 Other 0.38 (0.19–0.76)b 0.38 (0.18–0.81)b 
DemographicOR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)
Race and ethnicity   
 NH white Reference Reference 
 NH black 0.41 (0.35–0.49)b 0.44 (0.36–0.53)b 
 Hispanic 0.57 (0.47–0.69)b 0.65 (0.53–0.81)b 
 Other 0.64 (0.50–0.82)b 0.68 (0.52–0.87)b 
Sex   
Male Reference Reference 
Female 1.02 (0.90–1.16) 1.03 (0.90–1.17) 
Age group   
 0–1 Reference Reference 
 2–4 1.01 (0.86–1.18) 1.09 (0.93–1.28) 
 5–9 1.13 (0.94–1.37) 1.19 (0.98–1.44) 
 10–18 1.34 (1.07–1.67)b 1.40 (1.11–1.77)b 
Insurance status   
 Private Reference Reference 
 Medicaid 0.61 (0.52–0.71)b 0.78 (0.66–0.93)b 
 Self-pay 0.59 (0.41–0.85)b 0.73 (0.50–1.05) 
 Other 0.87 (0.47–1.62) 0.95 (0.51–1.78) 
Triage acuity level   
 5 (least acute) Reference Reference 
 4 1.10 (0.93–1.31) 1.09 (0.92–1.30) 
 3 1.55 (1.27–1.89)b 1.44 (1.16–1.78)b 
 2 2.02 (1.49–2.72)b 1.72 (1.25–2.37)b 
 1 (most acute) — — 
ED site   
 A Reference Reference 
 B 0.57 (0.40–0.82)b 0.90 (0.62–1.31) 
 C 0.81 (0.60–1.10) 0.86 (0.62–1.19) 
 D 0.85 (0.63–1.14) 1.02 (0.75–1.39) 
 E 1.61 (1.17–2.21)b 1.21 (0.87–1.69) 
 F 1.21 (0.92–1.60) 1.49 (1.11–1.98)b 
 G 0.85 (0.61–1.20) 0.66 (0.46–0.95)b 
Provider type   
 PEM attending Reference Reference 
 Pediatrician 1.04 (0.85–1.27) 1.19 (0.95–1.48) 
 General emergency medicine attending 0.72 (0.09–5.85) 0.84 (0.10–6.90) 
 Fellow 0.97 (0.68–1.37) 1.06 (0.75–1.50) 
 PA/NP 0.67 (0.52–0.86)b 0.89 (0.68–1.18) 
 Other 0.38 (0.19–0.76)b 0.38 (0.18–0.81)b 

PA, physician assistant; NP, nurse practitioner; —, insufficient outcome.

a

Adjusted for sex, age, insurance status, triage acuity level, ED site, and provider type.

b

Signifies statistical significance with P value < .05.

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