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TABLE 1

Children Born Into Different Levels of Poverty (n = 46 589)

CovariatesGroup 1A: Household and Neighborhood Poverty at Birth (n = 2951)Group 1B: Household Poverty Only at Birth (n = 2766)Group 1C: Neighborhood Poverty Only (n = 5902)Group 2: Not Born in Poverty (n = 34 970)
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Maternal covariates during pregnancy     
 Moved 940 (31.9)a 700 (25.3)a 1155 (19.6)a 5605 (16.0) 
 Received services from CFS 2350 (79.6)a 1962 (70.9)a 1364 (23.1)a 4457 (12.8) 
 Drug or alcohol use 736 (24.9)a 693 (25.1)a 633 (10.7)a 2932 (8.4) 
 Smoking 1513 (51.3)a 1403 (50.7)a 1143 (19.4)a 4192 (12.0) 
 Mood or anxiety disorder 469 (15.9)a 517 (18.7)a 715 (12.1) 4046 (11.6) 
 Inadequate prenatal care 921 (31.2)a 705 (25.5)a 989 (16.8)a 4525 (12.9) 
Maternal covariates before and at birth of child     
 Less than grade 12 education 1603 (54.3)a 1369 (49.5)a 1071 (18.2)a 3240 (9.3) 
 Social isolation 671 (22.7)a 623 (22.5)a 483 (8.2)a 1374 (3.9) 
 Lone parent 1566 (53.1)a 1515 (54.8)a 606 (10.3)a 1511 (4.3) 
 Age of mother at first birth     
  <20 1890 (64.1)a 1696 (61.3)a 1361 (23.1)a 4072 (11.6) 
  20–29 995 (33.7)a 1004 (36.3)a 3666 (62.1) 21 932 (62.7) 
  ≥30 66 (2.2)a 66 (2.4)a 875 (14.8)a 8966 (25.6) 
 Urban neighborhood at birth of child 2601 (88.1)a 1642 (59.4) 3918 (66.4)a 20 659 (59.1) 
Child covariates at birth     
 Birth order     
  1 814 (27.6)a 906 (32.8)a 2669 (45.2)a 14 746 (42.2) 
  2 841 (28.5)a 753 (27.2)a 1862 (31.6)a 12 909 (36.9) 
  3+ 1296 (43.9)a 1107 (40.0)a 1371 (23.2)a 7315 (20.9) 
 Male 1475 (50.0) 1394 (50.4) 3033 (51.4) 17 714 (50.7) 
 Low birth wt (<2500 g) 164 (5.6)a 166 (6.0)a 308 (5.2)a 1597 (4.6) 
 Preterm (<37 wk) 244 (8.3)a 237 (8.6)a 445 (7.5)a 2326 (6.7) 
CovariatesGroup 1A: Household and Neighborhood Poverty at Birth (n = 2951)Group 1B: Household Poverty Only at Birth (n = 2766)Group 1C: Neighborhood Poverty Only (n = 5902)Group 2: Not Born in Poverty (n = 34 970)
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Maternal covariates during pregnancy     
 Moved 940 (31.9)a 700 (25.3)a 1155 (19.6)a 5605 (16.0) 
 Received services from CFS 2350 (79.6)a 1962 (70.9)a 1364 (23.1)a 4457 (12.8) 
 Drug or alcohol use 736 (24.9)a 693 (25.1)a 633 (10.7)a 2932 (8.4) 
 Smoking 1513 (51.3)a 1403 (50.7)a 1143 (19.4)a 4192 (12.0) 
 Mood or anxiety disorder 469 (15.9)a 517 (18.7)a 715 (12.1) 4046 (11.6) 
 Inadequate prenatal care 921 (31.2)a 705 (25.5)a 989 (16.8)a 4525 (12.9) 
Maternal covariates before and at birth of child     
 Less than grade 12 education 1603 (54.3)a 1369 (49.5)a 1071 (18.2)a 3240 (9.3) 
 Social isolation 671 (22.7)a 623 (22.5)a 483 (8.2)a 1374 (3.9) 
 Lone parent 1566 (53.1)a 1515 (54.8)a 606 (10.3)a 1511 (4.3) 
 Age of mother at first birth     
  <20 1890 (64.1)a 1696 (61.3)a 1361 (23.1)a 4072 (11.6) 
  20–29 995 (33.7)a 1004 (36.3)a 3666 (62.1) 21 932 (62.7) 
  ≥30 66 (2.2)a 66 (2.4)a 875 (14.8)a 8966 (25.6) 
 Urban neighborhood at birth of child 2601 (88.1)a 1642 (59.4) 3918 (66.4)a 20 659 (59.1) 
Child covariates at birth     
 Birth order     
  1 814 (27.6)a 906 (32.8)a 2669 (45.2)a 14 746 (42.2) 
  2 841 (28.5)a 753 (27.2)a 1862 (31.6)a 12 909 (36.9) 
  3+ 1296 (43.9)a 1107 (40.0)a 1371 (23.2)a 7315 (20.9) 
 Male 1475 (50.0) 1394 (50.4) 3033 (51.4) 17 714 (50.7) 
 Low birth wt (<2500 g) 164 (5.6)a 166 (6.0)a 308 (5.2)a 1597 (4.6) 
 Preterm (<37 wk) 244 (8.3)a 237 (8.6)a 445 (7.5)a 2326 (6.7) 

CFS, Child and Family Services.

a

Significantly (at P < .05) different from Group 2.

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