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TABLE 3

Odds Ratios for School Readiness for Children Born Into Poverty, by Trajectories of Type of Poverty

School Readiness (EDI)Trajectory 1: Household Poverty to No PovertyTrajectory 2: Neighborhood Poverty to No PovertyTrajectory 3: No Poverty to Neighborhood PovertyTrajectory 4: No Poverty to Household Poverty
Unadjusted OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)
Not ready on physical well-being domain         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.43 (0.32–0.58)d 0.51 (0.37–0.69)d 0.59 (0.48–0.72)d 0.77 (0.62–0.95)d 1.60 (1.31–1.94)d 1.40 (1.14–1.72)d 3.71 (3.01–4.58)d 1.72 (1.36–2.18)d 
 After age 2e 0.62 (0.48–0.81)d 0.69 (0.53–0.90)d 0.73 (0.59–0.91)d 0.89 (0.70–1.11) 1.07 (0.85–1.33) 0.91 (0.72–1.14) 3.89 (3.10–4.88)d 2.06 (1.61–2.63)d 
Not ready on social competence domain         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.63 (0.47–0.84)d 0.71 (0.53–0.96)d 0.57 (0.46–0.70)d 0.70 (0.56–0.87)d 1.38 (1.12–1.71)d 1.26 (1.02–1.57)d 3.03 (2.43–3.79)d 1.57 (1.23–2.02)d 
 After age 2e 0.86 (0.66–1.11) 0.92 (0.70–1.21) 0.79 (0.64–0.98)d 0.92 (0.73–1.15) 1.07 (0.86–1.35) 0.94 (0.75–1.19) 2.34 (1.79–3.05)d 1.32 (0.99–1.75) 
Not ready on communication and general knowledge domain         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.48 (0.35–0.66)d 0.53 (0.38–0.74)d 0.58 (0.47–0.71)d 0.73 (0.59–0.90)d 1.61 (1.32–1.98)d 1.40 (1.13–1.72)d 2.57 (2.03–3.27)d 1.54 (1.18–2.01)d 
 After age 2e 0.53 (0.39–0.72)d 0.56 (0.41–0.76)d 0.77 (0.62–0.96)d 0.89 (0.71–1.11) 1.11 (0.89–1.40) 0.96 (0.76–1.21) 2.16 (1.63–2.84)d 1.39 (1.04–1.88)d 
Not ready on emotional maturity domain         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.65 (0.48–0.88)d 0.73 (0.53–1.01) 0.62 (0.50–0.76)d 0.74 (0.60–0.93)d 1.08 (0.87–1.34) 0.97 (0.78–1.20) 2.40 (1.91–3.01)d 1.37 (1.07–1.77)d 
 After age 2e 1.15 (0.89–1.49) 1.23 (0.94–1.61) 0.76 (0.61–0.95)d 0.86 (0.68–1.09) 1.08 (0.88–1.34) 1.00 (0.80–1.25) 1.84 (1.40–2.42)d 1.14 (0.85–1.52) 
Not ready on language and cognitive development domain         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.48 (0.36–0.64)d 0.54 (0.40–0.73)d 0.59 (0.48–0.72)d 0.76 (0.61–0.94)d 1.43 (1.15–1.78)d 1.24 (0.99–1.55) 3.57 (2.87–4.45)d 1.84 (1.44–2.35)d 
 After age 2e 0.61 (0.47–0.80)d 0.66 (0.50–0.86)d 0.72 (0.58–0.90)d 0.86 (0.68–1.08) 1.23 (0.99–1.54) 1.07 (0.95–1.34) 3.21 (2.51–4.12)d 1.81 (1.39–2.37)d 
Placed in out-of-home care, 0–5         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.18 (0.12–0.29)d 0.35 (0.22–0.59)d 0.12 (0.06–0.24)d 0.30 (0.14–0.65)d 3.36 (1.33–8.49)d 1.52 (0.57–4.03) 75.01 (49.70–113.21)d 9.14 (5.67–14.73)d 
 After age 2e 0.44 (0.32–0.61)d 0.67 (0.47–0.94)d 0.20 (0.10–0.39)d 0.39 (0.18–0.83)d 2.54 (0.91–7.06) 1.39 (0.49–3.98) 44.19 (26.99–72.36)d 6.37 (3.73–10.86)d 
Externalizing mental condition diagnosis, 0–5         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.67 (0.42–1.09) 0.78 (0.48–1.28) 1.17 (0.85–1.60) 1.35 (0.96–1.89) 0.92 (0.64–1.33) 0.95 (0.66–1.39) 1.55 (1.03–2.32)d 1.21 (0.72–1.74) 
 After age 2e 1.34 (0.93–1.92) 1.39 (0.96–2.01) 0.67 (0.44–1.03) 0.74 (0.48–1.15) 0.87 (0.60–1.25) 0.86 (0.59–1.25) 1.41 (0.89–2.24) 1.10 (0.68–1.78) 
Asthma diagnosis, 0–5         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.76 (0.59–0.98)d 0.91 (0.70–1.18) 0.81 (0.69–0.94)d 0.84 (0.71–0.99)d 0.99 (0.84–1.17) 1.02 (0.87–1.20) 1.30 (1.05–1.60)d 1.08 (0.87–1.36) 
 After age 2e 1.01 (0.80–1.28) 1.07 (0.84–1.36) 0.82 (0.69–0.98)d 0.84 (0.70–1.01) 0.94 (0.80–1.11) 0.95 (0.81–1.12) 1.28 (1.01–1.61)d 1.13 (0.89–1.44) 
Injury hospitalization, 0–5         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.41 (0.13–1.31) 0.69 (0.21–2.24) 0.52 (0.26–1.05) 0.54 (0.26–1.11) 0.37 (0.09–1.49) 0.33 (0.08 1.34) 1.83 (0.75–4.48) 1.06 (0.40–2.76) 
 After age 2e 0.53 (0.19–1.46) 0.71 (0.26–1.97) 0.35 (0.14–0.90)d 0.35 (0.14–0.93)d 1.93 (1.05–3.57)d 1.63 (0.88–3.04) 1.32 (0.42–4.16) 0.83 (0.25–2.69) 
School Readiness (EDI)Trajectory 1: Household Poverty to No PovertyTrajectory 2: Neighborhood Poverty to No PovertyTrajectory 3: No Poverty to Neighborhood PovertyTrajectory 4: No Poverty to Household Poverty
Unadjusted OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)
Not ready on physical well-being domain         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.43 (0.32–0.58)d 0.51 (0.37–0.69)d 0.59 (0.48–0.72)d 0.77 (0.62–0.95)d 1.60 (1.31–1.94)d 1.40 (1.14–1.72)d 3.71 (3.01–4.58)d 1.72 (1.36–2.18)d 
 After age 2e 0.62 (0.48–0.81)d 0.69 (0.53–0.90)d 0.73 (0.59–0.91)d 0.89 (0.70–1.11) 1.07 (0.85–1.33) 0.91 (0.72–1.14) 3.89 (3.10–4.88)d 2.06 (1.61–2.63)d 
Not ready on social competence domain         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.63 (0.47–0.84)d 0.71 (0.53–0.96)d 0.57 (0.46–0.70)d 0.70 (0.56–0.87)d 1.38 (1.12–1.71)d 1.26 (1.02–1.57)d 3.03 (2.43–3.79)d 1.57 (1.23–2.02)d 
 After age 2e 0.86 (0.66–1.11) 0.92 (0.70–1.21) 0.79 (0.64–0.98)d 0.92 (0.73–1.15) 1.07 (0.86–1.35) 0.94 (0.75–1.19) 2.34 (1.79–3.05)d 1.32 (0.99–1.75) 
Not ready on communication and general knowledge domain         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.48 (0.35–0.66)d 0.53 (0.38–0.74)d 0.58 (0.47–0.71)d 0.73 (0.59–0.90)d 1.61 (1.32–1.98)d 1.40 (1.13–1.72)d 2.57 (2.03–3.27)d 1.54 (1.18–2.01)d 
 After age 2e 0.53 (0.39–0.72)d 0.56 (0.41–0.76)d 0.77 (0.62–0.96)d 0.89 (0.71–1.11) 1.11 (0.89–1.40) 0.96 (0.76–1.21) 2.16 (1.63–2.84)d 1.39 (1.04–1.88)d 
Not ready on emotional maturity domain         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.65 (0.48–0.88)d 0.73 (0.53–1.01) 0.62 (0.50–0.76)d 0.74 (0.60–0.93)d 1.08 (0.87–1.34) 0.97 (0.78–1.20) 2.40 (1.91–3.01)d 1.37 (1.07–1.77)d 
 After age 2e 1.15 (0.89–1.49) 1.23 (0.94–1.61) 0.76 (0.61–0.95)d 0.86 (0.68–1.09) 1.08 (0.88–1.34) 1.00 (0.80–1.25) 1.84 (1.40–2.42)d 1.14 (0.85–1.52) 
Not ready on language and cognitive development domain         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.48 (0.36–0.64)d 0.54 (0.40–0.73)d 0.59 (0.48–0.72)d 0.76 (0.61–0.94)d 1.43 (1.15–1.78)d 1.24 (0.99–1.55) 3.57 (2.87–4.45)d 1.84 (1.44–2.35)d 
 After age 2e 0.61 (0.47–0.80)d 0.66 (0.50–0.86)d 0.72 (0.58–0.90)d 0.86 (0.68–1.08) 1.23 (0.99–1.54) 1.07 (0.95–1.34) 3.21 (2.51–4.12)d 1.81 (1.39–2.37)d 
Placed in out-of-home care, 0–5         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.18 (0.12–0.29)d 0.35 (0.22–0.59)d 0.12 (0.06–0.24)d 0.30 (0.14–0.65)d 3.36 (1.33–8.49)d 1.52 (0.57–4.03) 75.01 (49.70–113.21)d 9.14 (5.67–14.73)d 
 After age 2e 0.44 (0.32–0.61)d 0.67 (0.47–0.94)d 0.20 (0.10–0.39)d 0.39 (0.18–0.83)d 2.54 (0.91–7.06) 1.39 (0.49–3.98) 44.19 (26.99–72.36)d 6.37 (3.73–10.86)d 
Externalizing mental condition diagnosis, 0–5         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.67 (0.42–1.09) 0.78 (0.48–1.28) 1.17 (0.85–1.60) 1.35 (0.96–1.89) 0.92 (0.64–1.33) 0.95 (0.66–1.39) 1.55 (1.03–2.32)d 1.21 (0.72–1.74) 
 After age 2e 1.34 (0.93–1.92) 1.39 (0.96–2.01) 0.67 (0.44–1.03) 0.74 (0.48–1.15) 0.87 (0.60–1.25) 0.86 (0.59–1.25) 1.41 (0.89–2.24) 1.10 (0.68–1.78) 
Asthma diagnosis, 0–5         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.76 (0.59–0.98)d 0.91 (0.70–1.18) 0.81 (0.69–0.94)d 0.84 (0.71–0.99)d 0.99 (0.84–1.17) 1.02 (0.87–1.20) 1.30 (1.05–1.60)d 1.08 (0.87–1.36) 
 After age 2e 1.01 (0.80–1.28) 1.07 (0.84–1.36) 0.82 (0.69–0.98)d 0.84 (0.70–1.01) 0.94 (0.80–1.11) 0.95 (0.81–1.12) 1.28 (1.01–1.61)d 1.13 (0.89–1.44) 
Injury hospitalization, 0–5         
 No changeb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Before age 2c 0.41 (0.13–1.31) 0.69 (0.21–2.24) 0.52 (0.26–1.05) 0.54 (0.26–1.11) 0.37 (0.09–1.49) 0.33 (0.08 1.34) 1.83 (0.75–4.48) 1.06 (0.40–2.76) 
 After age 2e 0.53 (0.19–1.46) 0.71 (0.26–1.97) 0.35 (0.14–0.90)d 0.35 (0.14–0.93)d 1.93 (1.05–3.57)d 1.63 (0.88–3.04) 1.32 (0.42–4.16) 0.83 (0.25–2.69) 

CFS, Child and Family Services; CI, confidence interval; EDI, early development instrument; OR, odds ratio.

a

Adjusted for maternal covariates during pregnancy (moved, received services from CFS, mood and anxiety disorders, drug and/or alcohol use, smoking, prenatal care use), maternal covariates at the index date (education, social isolation, lone parent, age, neighborhood location), and child covariates at birth (birth order, sex, birth wt, gestational age).

b

No change in poverty level and/or type before age 5.

c

Change in poverty level and/or type between birth and age 2.

d

P < .05.

e

Change in poverty level and/or type between age 2 and age 5.

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