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TABLE 4

Odds Ratios for Not Being Ready For School, Trajectories by Type of Poverty

Not Ready on 1 or More Domain (EDI)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)
Trajectory 1: born in household poverty (n = 4610)   
 Stayed in household poverty to age 5 (n = 3904) Reference Reference 
 Transitioned out of poverty before age 2 (n = 347) 0.49 (0.39–0.61)b 0.58 (0.46–0.75)b 
 Transitioned out of poverty after age 2 (n = 359) 0.67 (0.54–0.83)b 0.75 (0.60–0.94)b 
Trajectory 2: born in neighborhood poverty (n = 5070)   
 Stayed in neighborhood poverty to age 5 (n = 2290) Reference Reference 
 Moved out of poverty before age 2 (n = 1656) 0.59 (0.51–0.68)b 0.73 (0.63–0.86)b 
 Moved out of poverty after age 2 (n = 1124) 0.80 (0.68–0.94)b 0.94 (0.80–1.11) 
Trajectory 3: not born in poverty (n = 31 581)   
 Stayed out of poverty to age 5 (n = 29 561) Reference Reference 
 Moved into neighborhood poverty before age 2 (n = 981) 1.45 (1.25–1.67)b 1.30 (1.12–1.51)b 
 Moved into neighborhood poverty after age 2 (n = 1039) 1.17 (1.01–1.36)b 1.02 (0.88–1.19) 
Trajectory 4: not born in poverty (n = 30 470)   
 Stayed out of poverty to age 5 (n = 29 561) Reference Reference 
 Transitioned into household poverty before age 2 (n = 497) 3.27 (2.74–3.91)b 1.71 (1.40–2.09)b 
 Transitioned into household poverty after age 2 (n = 412) 2.89 (2.37–3.52)b 1.68 (1.35–2.08)b 
Not Ready on 1 or More Domain (EDI)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)
Trajectory 1: born in household poverty (n = 4610)   
 Stayed in household poverty to age 5 (n = 3904) Reference Reference 
 Transitioned out of poverty before age 2 (n = 347) 0.49 (0.39–0.61)b 0.58 (0.46–0.75)b 
 Transitioned out of poverty after age 2 (n = 359) 0.67 (0.54–0.83)b 0.75 (0.60–0.94)b 
Trajectory 2: born in neighborhood poverty (n = 5070)   
 Stayed in neighborhood poverty to age 5 (n = 2290) Reference Reference 
 Moved out of poverty before age 2 (n = 1656) 0.59 (0.51–0.68)b 0.73 (0.63–0.86)b 
 Moved out of poverty after age 2 (n = 1124) 0.80 (0.68–0.94)b 0.94 (0.80–1.11) 
Trajectory 3: not born in poverty (n = 31 581)   
 Stayed out of poverty to age 5 (n = 29 561) Reference Reference 
 Moved into neighborhood poverty before age 2 (n = 981) 1.45 (1.25–1.67)b 1.30 (1.12–1.51)b 
 Moved into neighborhood poverty after age 2 (n = 1039) 1.17 (1.01–1.36)b 1.02 (0.88–1.19) 
Trajectory 4: not born in poverty (n = 30 470)   
 Stayed out of poverty to age 5 (n = 29 561) Reference Reference 
 Transitioned into household poverty before age 2 (n = 497) 3.27 (2.74–3.91)b 1.71 (1.40–2.09)b 
 Transitioned into household poverty after age 2 (n = 412) 2.89 (2.37–3.52)b 1.68 (1.35–2.08)b 

CFS, Child and Family Services; CI, confidence interval; EDI, early development instrument; OR, odds ratio.

a

Adjusted for maternal covariates during pregnancy (moved, received services from CFS, mood and anxiety disorders, drug and/or alcohol use, smoking, prenatal care use), maternal covariates at the index date (education, social isolation, lone parent, age, neighborhood location), and child covariates at birth (birth order, sex, birth wt, gestational age). These variables are used for adjustment in all tables.

b

P < .05.

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