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TABLE 1

Home-Visiting Programs Meeting HHS Criteria for Evidence of Effectiveness (as of April 2017)

Home-Visiting ProgramAges Served (With Evidence of Effectiveness)Target PopulationEvidence for Effect on Outcomesa
Attachment and Behavioral Catch-Up Intervention 0–2 y Caregivers of infants and young children aged 6–24 mo, including high-risk birth parents and caregivers of young children in foster care, kinship care (such as a grandparent raising a grandchild), and adoptive care 1, 3, 6 
Child First 0–3 y Pregnant women and families with children aged 0–6 y; children with emotional, behavioral, or developmental concerns; or families facing multiple risks for child outcomes 2, 3, 4, 8 
Durham Connects (also known as Family Connects) 0–1 y All families residing within a defined service area that have newborns aged 2–12 wk; supports families’ efforts to enhance their children’s health and wellbeing and reduces rates of child abuse and neglect 1, 2, 6, 8 
Early Head Start Home Visiting Pregnant women, 0–3 y Children with emotional, behavioral, or developmental concerns, or families facing multiple risks 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 
Early Intervention Programs for Adolescent Mothers Pregnant women, 0–1 y Pregnant adolescents from underserved minority groups referred to the county health department or health services agency for nursing care; eligible if aged 14–19 y, at ≤26 wk gestation, pregnant with first child, or planning to keep the infant 1, 7 
Early Start (New Zealand) 0–5 y At-risk families with children from age 0–5 y; also, a focus on the Maori population 1, 3, 4, 6 
Family Check-Up 2–5 y Families with children aged 2–17 y who have the following risk factors: socioeconomic, child conduct problems, academic failure, depression, or risk for early substance use 2, 3, 6 
Family Spirit 0–3 y, begins in pregnancy American Indian mothers and their children (incorporates traditional tribal teachings) 2, 3, 6 
Health Access Nurturing Development Services Pregnant women, birth–3 mo First-time pregnant mothers, mothers with multiple risks 1, 2, 4, 7 
Healthy Beginnings Pregnant women, birth–23 mo First-time mothers of infants from socially and economically disadvantaged communities 1, 2, 3, 6 
Healthy Families America Pregnant women, 0–5 y (enroll prenatally or at birth) Parents facing challenges such as single parenthood, low income, childhood history of abuse and adverse child experiences, current or previous issues related to substance abuse, mental health issues, and/or domestic violence 1–8 
Healthy Steps (national evaluation 1996 protocol) Note: These results focus on Healthy Steps as implemented in the 1996 evaluation. HHS has determined that home visiting is not the primary service delivery strategy, and the model does not meet current requirements for MIECHV program implementation. 0–3 y Implemented in primary care for parents with children aged 0–3 y 1, 6 
Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters 3–5 y Parents who have doubts about or lack confidence in their ability to instruct their children and prepare them for school 3, 6 
Maternal Early Childhood Sustained Home-Visiting Program Pregnant women, 0–2 y Disadvantaged, pregnant women at risk for adverse maternal and/or child health and development outcomes with the following risk factors: lack of support, history of mental illness or childhood abuse, depression, life stressors, history of domestic violence, or alcohol or drug use in the home 1, 2, 6 
Minding the Baby Pregnant women, 0–2 y First-time mothers living in low-income settings, in their second or third trimester of pregnancy, who are aged 14–25 y, and who are receiving prenatal services from 1 of 2 collaborating community health clinics 1, 2 
NFP Pregnant women, 0–2 y (enroll early in pregnancy) First-time, low-income mothers and their children 1–7 
Oklahoma Community-Based Family Resource and Support Program
Note: Implementation support is not currently available for the model. Pregnant women, 0–1 y First-time mothers (begins before 28 wk gestation) 1, 6 
Parents as Teachers Pregnant women, 0–5 y Children with special needs, families at risk for child abuse, income-based criteria, teen-aged parents, first-time parents, immigrant families, low-literate families, or parents with mental health or substance abuse issues 3, 4, 6, 7 
Play and Learning Strategies 0–3 y Children, to strengthen parent-child bonding and stimulate children’s early language, cognitive, and social development 3, 6 
SafeCare Augmented (an adaptation of SafeCare) 0–5 y Families with a history of child maltreatment or families at risk for child maltreatment 4, 8 
Home-Visiting ProgramAges Served (With Evidence of Effectiveness)Target PopulationEvidence for Effect on Outcomesa
Attachment and Behavioral Catch-Up Intervention 0–2 y Caregivers of infants and young children aged 6–24 mo, including high-risk birth parents and caregivers of young children in foster care, kinship care (such as a grandparent raising a grandchild), and adoptive care 1, 3, 6 
Child First 0–3 y Pregnant women and families with children aged 0–6 y; children with emotional, behavioral, or developmental concerns; or families facing multiple risks for child outcomes 2, 3, 4, 8 
Durham Connects (also known as Family Connects) 0–1 y All families residing within a defined service area that have newborns aged 2–12 wk; supports families’ efforts to enhance their children’s health and wellbeing and reduces rates of child abuse and neglect 1, 2, 6, 8 
Early Head Start Home Visiting Pregnant women, 0–3 y Children with emotional, behavioral, or developmental concerns, or families facing multiple risks 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 
Early Intervention Programs for Adolescent Mothers Pregnant women, 0–1 y Pregnant adolescents from underserved minority groups referred to the county health department or health services agency for nursing care; eligible if aged 14–19 y, at ≤26 wk gestation, pregnant with first child, or planning to keep the infant 1, 7 
Early Start (New Zealand) 0–5 y At-risk families with children from age 0–5 y; also, a focus on the Maori population 1, 3, 4, 6 
Family Check-Up 2–5 y Families with children aged 2–17 y who have the following risk factors: socioeconomic, child conduct problems, academic failure, depression, or risk for early substance use 2, 3, 6 
Family Spirit 0–3 y, begins in pregnancy American Indian mothers and their children (incorporates traditional tribal teachings) 2, 3, 6 
Health Access Nurturing Development Services Pregnant women, birth–3 mo First-time pregnant mothers, mothers with multiple risks 1, 2, 4, 7 
Healthy Beginnings Pregnant women, birth–23 mo First-time mothers of infants from socially and economically disadvantaged communities 1, 2, 3, 6 
Healthy Families America Pregnant women, 0–5 y (enroll prenatally or at birth) Parents facing challenges such as single parenthood, low income, childhood history of abuse and adverse child experiences, current or previous issues related to substance abuse, mental health issues, and/or domestic violence 1–8 
Healthy Steps (national evaluation 1996 protocol) Note: These results focus on Healthy Steps as implemented in the 1996 evaluation. HHS has determined that home visiting is not the primary service delivery strategy, and the model does not meet current requirements for MIECHV program implementation. 0–3 y Implemented in primary care for parents with children aged 0–3 y 1, 6 
Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters 3–5 y Parents who have doubts about or lack confidence in their ability to instruct their children and prepare them for school 3, 6 
Maternal Early Childhood Sustained Home-Visiting Program Pregnant women, 0–2 y Disadvantaged, pregnant women at risk for adverse maternal and/or child health and development outcomes with the following risk factors: lack of support, history of mental illness or childhood abuse, depression, life stressors, history of domestic violence, or alcohol or drug use in the home 1, 2, 6 
Minding the Baby Pregnant women, 0–2 y First-time mothers living in low-income settings, in their second or third trimester of pregnancy, who are aged 14–25 y, and who are receiving prenatal services from 1 of 2 collaborating community health clinics 1, 2 
NFP Pregnant women, 0–2 y (enroll early in pregnancy) First-time, low-income mothers and their children 1–7 
Oklahoma Community-Based Family Resource and Support Program
Note: Implementation support is not currently available for the model. Pregnant women, 0–1 y First-time mothers (begins before 28 wk gestation) 1, 6 
Parents as Teachers Pregnant women, 0–5 y Children with special needs, families at risk for child abuse, income-based criteria, teen-aged parents, first-time parents, immigrant families, low-literate families, or parents with mental health or substance abuse issues 3, 4, 6, 7 
Play and Learning Strategies 0–3 y Children, to strengthen parent-child bonding and stimulate children’s early language, cognitive, and social development 3, 6 
SafeCare Augmented (an adaptation of SafeCare) 0–5 y Families with a history of child maltreatment or families at risk for child maltreatment 4, 8 
a

Outcomes: (1) child health; (2) maternal health; (3) child development and school readiness; (4) reductions in child maltreatment; (5) reductions in juvenile delinquency, family violence, and crime; (6) positive parenting practices; (7) family economic self-sufficiency; and (8) linkages and referrals.

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