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TABLE 3

Mean Cost and Length of Stay for an Average Infant in Each Treatment Arm in the First 12 Months

CPAP (n = 338)nHF (n = 338)DifferenceP
Mean cost (95% CI), A$ 20 606 (18 609 to 22 603) 20 753 (18 672 to 22 833) −147 (−3025 to 2732) .92 
 Initial special care nursery stay 17 748 (16 113 to 19 382) 18 046 (16 285 to 19 808) −299 (−2698 to 2100) .81 
 Interhospital transfer     
  To other special care nurseries 58 (38 to 78) 65 (41 to 89) −7 (−38 to 25) .67 
  To NICU 252 (115 to 389) 154 (76 to 233) 98 (−91 to 194) .48 
 Tertiary hospital staysa 1658 (826 to 2490) 1483 (828 to 2138) 175 (−882 to 1232) .75 
 Subsequent hospital stay after first discharge 890 (528 to 1252) 1004 (495 to 1514) −114 (−738 to 510) .72 
Mean length of stayb (95% CI), d 13.3 (12.1 to 14.6) 13.4 (12.1 to 14.6) 0.0 (−1.8 to 1.8) .96 
 Initial special care nursery stay 11.8 (10.7 to 12.9) 11.9 (10.7 to 13.0) −0.1 (−1.7 to 1.5) .90 
 Tertiary hospital stays 0.8 (0.4 to 1.1) 0.8 (0.5 to 1.2) −0.1 (−0.6 to 0.5) .79 
 Subsequent hospital stay after first discharge 0.6 (0.4 to 0.8) 0.6 (0.4 to 0.9) 0.0 (−0.4 to 0.3) .79 
CPAP (n = 338)nHF (n = 338)DifferenceP
Mean cost (95% CI), A$ 20 606 (18 609 to 22 603) 20 753 (18 672 to 22 833) −147 (−3025 to 2732) .92 
 Initial special care nursery stay 17 748 (16 113 to 19 382) 18 046 (16 285 to 19 808) −299 (−2698 to 2100) .81 
 Interhospital transfer     
  To other special care nurseries 58 (38 to 78) 65 (41 to 89) −7 (−38 to 25) .67 
  To NICU 252 (115 to 389) 154 (76 to 233) 98 (−91 to 194) .48 
 Tertiary hospital staysa 1658 (826 to 2490) 1483 (828 to 2138) 175 (−882 to 1232) .75 
 Subsequent hospital stay after first discharge 890 (528 to 1252) 1004 (495 to 1514) −114 (−738 to 510) .72 
Mean length of stayb (95% CI), d 13.3 (12.1 to 14.6) 13.4 (12.1 to 14.6) 0.0 (−1.8 to 1.8) .96 
 Initial special care nursery stay 11.8 (10.7 to 12.9) 11.9 (10.7 to 13.0) −0.1 (−1.7 to 1.5) .90 
 Tertiary hospital stays 0.8 (0.4 to 1.1) 0.8 (0.5 to 1.2) −0.1 (−0.6 to 0.5) .79 
 Subsequent hospital stay after first discharge 0.6 (0.4 to 0.8) 0.6 (0.4 to 0.9) 0.0 (−0.4 to 0.3) .79 

Student's t test was used to compare mean differences in cost and length of stay. We assigned a value of zero to the cost of NICU stay or transfer for infants who were not admitted to NICU or transferred. The presented means are representative of all infants in each treatment group (also showing the relative workload along the treatment pathway). Within the per-protocol population, 645 (95%) of the infants have complete costing data available from birth to 12 mo. For the 31 (5%) infants who were not yet 12 mo of age in the data capture period, all available costing records were used. The incomplete data capture was due to local financial year accounting policies that are not related to CPAP or nHF treatment. All 31 infants have complete costs for the first 8 mo (they have an average of 10.6 mo of cost), and 17 were in the CPAP group and 14 in the nHF group. A test was conducted excluding infants with less than 12 mo data available in one-way sensitivity analysis. CI, confidence interval.

a

Hospitalizations to a tertiary hospital beyond the clinical trial period were not available. We assume that there are no subsequent hospitalizations to tertiary hospitals in the first 12 mo for simplicity given its rare occurrence as observed in 1 out of 274 preterm infants with respiratory distress treated in tertiary hospitals.13 

b

Length of stay for same-day admission was estimated as 1 inpatient day for simplicity.

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