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TABLE 5

Post hoc Subgroup Analysis by Geographic Distance to NICUs

CPAPnHFDifference (95% CI)P
With back-up CPAP (trial)     
 “Near to NICU” hospitals, n 167 152   
  Cost, A$ 22 260 20 142 2117 (−3025 to 2732) .31 
  Effectiveness, intubation rate, % 9.4 8.6 0.8 (−5.6 to 2.0) .80 
  Effectiveness, transfer rate, % 13.4 10.2 3.2 (−3.7 to 4.9) .34 
 “Far from NICU” hospitals, n 171 186   
  Cost, A$ 18 944 21 622 −2678 (−3025 to 2732) .20 
  Effectiveness, intubation rate, % 2.4 6.6 −4.2 (−5.6 to 2.0) .07 
  Effectiveness, transfer rate, % 4.8 6.6 −1.8 (−3.7 to 4.9) .49 
No back-up CPAP (hypothetical)     
 “Near to NICU” hospitals, n 167 152   
  Cost, A$ 22 260 20 421 1839 (−3892 to 1874) .38 
  Effectiveness, intubation rate, % 9.4 12.9 −3.5 (−12.5 to −3.5) .29 
  Effectiveness, transfer rate, % 13.4 15.1 −1.6 (−11.5 to −1.5) .67 
 “Far from NICU” hospitals, n 171 186   
  Cost, A$ 18 944 23 617 −4673 (−3892 to 1874) .03 
  Effectiveness, intubation rate, % 2.4 9.8 −7.5 (−12.5 to −3.5) .005 
  Effectiveness, transfer rate, % 4.8 17.8 −13.0 (−11.5 to −1.5) <.001 
CPAPnHFDifference (95% CI)P
With back-up CPAP (trial)     
 “Near to NICU” hospitals, n 167 152   
  Cost, A$ 22 260 20 142 2117 (−3025 to 2732) .31 
  Effectiveness, intubation rate, % 9.4 8.6 0.8 (−5.6 to 2.0) .80 
  Effectiveness, transfer rate, % 13.4 10.2 3.2 (−3.7 to 4.9) .34 
 “Far from NICU” hospitals, n 171 186   
  Cost, A$ 18 944 21 622 −2678 (−3025 to 2732) .20 
  Effectiveness, intubation rate, % 2.4 6.6 −4.2 (−5.6 to 2.0) .07 
  Effectiveness, transfer rate, % 4.8 6.6 −1.8 (−3.7 to 4.9) .49 
No back-up CPAP (hypothetical)     
 “Near to NICU” hospitals, n 167 152   
  Cost, A$ 22 260 20 421 1839 (−3892 to 1874) .38 
  Effectiveness, intubation rate, % 9.4 12.9 −3.5 (−12.5 to −3.5) .29 
  Effectiveness, transfer rate, % 13.4 15.1 −1.6 (−11.5 to −1.5) .67 
 “Far from NICU” hospitals, n 171 186   
  Cost, A$ 18 944 23 617 −4673 (−3892 to 1874) .03 
  Effectiveness, intubation rate, % 2.4 9.8 −7.5 (−12.5 to −3.5) .005 
  Effectiveness, transfer rate, % 4.8 17.8 −13.0 (−11.5 to −1.5) <.001 

The 9 participating centers were divided into 2 groups. The “Near to NICU” hospitals consisted of 6 hospitals with road distance to the nearest tertiary NICU <30 km. The “Far from NICU” hospitals consisted of 3 hospitals with the nearest tertiary NICU at least 70 km away.

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