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TABLE 2

Clinical Findings and Their Effects on Hospital Discharge Among Children in the Medical Conditions or ICU Cohorts, FluSurv-NET

VariableMedical Conditions Cohort (n = 309)ICU Cohort (n = 299)
TotalNo. (%) With CharacteristicHRPTotalNo. (%) With CharacteristicHRP
Clinical findings within first 24 h of admission         
 Respiratory findings         
  Dyspnea 304 72 (24) 0.80 .11 288 165 (57) 0.84 .12 
  Apnea 304 6 (2) 1.43 .39 287 25 (9) 0.70a .05a 
  Wheezing 303 67 (22) 0.97 .85 290 99 (34) 1.16 .18 
  Chest wall retractions (sub- or intercostal) 302 41 (14) 0.86 .39 289 106 (37) 1.11 .31 
  Nasal flaring 304 7 (2) 0.70 .36 284 37 (13) 1.04 .73 
  Cyanosis 304 12 (4) 1.38 .27 285 30 (11) 0.72 .07 
  Grunting 300 9 (3) 1.04 .91 284 24 (8) 1.07 .67 
 Mental status change         
  Lethargy or decreased activity 305 102 (33) 0.90 .41 283 99 (35) 0.98 .85 
  Confusion or delirium 305 17 (6) 1.03 .90 285 29 (10) 0.65a .02a 
  Unconscious 306 5 (2) 2.11 .10 286 15 (5) 0.63 .15 
 Maximum respiratory rate higher than median 300 147 (49) 0.95 .69 288 142 (49) 1.03 .80 
 Minimum oxygen saturation <92% on room air 286 63 (22) 0.84 .21 254 125 (49) 0.79a .05a 
 Supplemental oxygen 307 104 (34) 0.71a .01a 296 230 (78) 0.60a <.01a 
 Invasive mechanical ventilation 102 0 (0) n/a n/a 222 80 (36) 0.42a <.01a 
 Respiratory/breathing treatment 303 111 (37) 0.84 .13 292 175 (60) 0.85 .17 
Clinical findings at 24 h after admission         
 Supplemental oxygen 306 71 (23) 0.63a <.01a 293 196 (67) 0.49a <.01a 
 Invasive mechanical ventilation 66 1 (2) 0.35 .30 192 70 (36) 0.40a <.01a 
 Respiratory/breathing treatment 302 99 (33) 0.75a .02a 277 148 (53) 0.83 .12 
Chest radiograph within 3 d of admission         
 Abnormal 309 168 (54) 0.97 .19 299 146 (49) 0.79a .01a 
 Normal 309 58 (19) 0.75 n/a 299 125 (42) 0.60a n/a 
 Not performed 309 83 (27) ref n/a 299 28 (9) refa n/a 
Pneumonia 309 27 (9) 0.66a .04a 293 72 (25) 0.71a <.01a 
Extracorporeal membranous oxygenation 309 0 (0) n/a n/a 296 5 (2) 0.13a <.01a 
VariableMedical Conditions Cohort (n = 309)ICU Cohort (n = 299)
TotalNo. (%) With CharacteristicHRPTotalNo. (%) With CharacteristicHRP
Clinical findings within first 24 h of admission         
 Respiratory findings         
  Dyspnea 304 72 (24) 0.80 .11 288 165 (57) 0.84 .12 
  Apnea 304 6 (2) 1.43 .39 287 25 (9) 0.70a .05a 
  Wheezing 303 67 (22) 0.97 .85 290 99 (34) 1.16 .18 
  Chest wall retractions (sub- or intercostal) 302 41 (14) 0.86 .39 289 106 (37) 1.11 .31 
  Nasal flaring 304 7 (2) 0.70 .36 284 37 (13) 1.04 .73 
  Cyanosis 304 12 (4) 1.38 .27 285 30 (11) 0.72 .07 
  Grunting 300 9 (3) 1.04 .91 284 24 (8) 1.07 .67 
 Mental status change         
  Lethargy or decreased activity 305 102 (33) 0.90 .41 283 99 (35) 0.98 .85 
  Confusion or delirium 305 17 (6) 1.03 .90 285 29 (10) 0.65a .02a 
  Unconscious 306 5 (2) 2.11 .10 286 15 (5) 0.63 .15 
 Maximum respiratory rate higher than median 300 147 (49) 0.95 .69 288 142 (49) 1.03 .80 
 Minimum oxygen saturation <92% on room air 286 63 (22) 0.84 .21 254 125 (49) 0.79a .05a 
 Supplemental oxygen 307 104 (34) 0.71a .01a 296 230 (78) 0.60a <.01a 
 Invasive mechanical ventilation 102 0 (0) n/a n/a 222 80 (36) 0.42a <.01a 
 Respiratory/breathing treatment 303 111 (37) 0.84 .13 292 175 (60) 0.85 .17 
Clinical findings at 24 h after admission         
 Supplemental oxygen 306 71 (23) 0.63a <.01a 293 196 (67) 0.49a <.01a 
 Invasive mechanical ventilation 66 1 (2) 0.35 .30 192 70 (36) 0.40a <.01a 
 Respiratory/breathing treatment 302 99 (33) 0.75a .02a 277 148 (53) 0.83 .12 
Chest radiograph within 3 d of admission         
 Abnormal 309 168 (54) 0.97 .19 299 146 (49) 0.79a .01a 
 Normal 309 58 (19) 0.75 n/a 299 125 (42) 0.60a n/a 
 Not performed 309 83 (27) ref n/a 299 28 (9) refa n/a 
Pneumonia 309 27 (9) 0.66a .04a 293 72 (25) 0.71a <.01a 
Extracorporeal membranous oxygenation 309 0 (0) n/a n/a 296 5 (2) 0.13a <.01a 

Total denotes number of total nonmissing values; HRs were determined by using a single-variable Cox model; HRs <1 indicate a lower risk of discharge and longer length of hospital stay and vice versa. n/a, not applicable. ref, reference category.

a

Denotes a statistically significant result.

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