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TABLE 3

Cox Models of Antiviral Effect on Hospital Discharge Among Children in the Medical Conditions or ICU Cohorts, FluSurv-NET

ModelAntiviral UseMedical Conditions Cohort (n = 309)ICU Cohort (n = 299)
No. PatientsHR95% Confidence IntervalPNo. PatientsHR95% Confidence IntervalP
1a, 1b Nonea 73 ref n/a n/a 86 ref n/a n/a 
 Started on day of illness onset 34 1.48 0.98–2.23 .06 36 1.11 0.72–1.70 .64 
 Started 1 d after illness onset 89 1.43 1.05–1.94 .02 72 0.99 0.74–1.33 .95 
 Started 2 d after illness onset 76 1.41 1.02–1.95 .03 60 1.11 0.83–1.49 .48 
 Started 3 d after illness onset 24 1.20 0.76–1.91 .44 28 1.05 0.75–1.47 .79 
 Started ≥4 d after illness onset 13 0.89 0.46–1.71 .73 17 1.08 0.65–1.79 .77 
2a, 2b Nonea 73 ref n/a n/a 86 ref n/a n/a 
 Started day 0–2 after illness onset 199 1.43 1.09–1.87 .01 168 1.05 0.82–1.35 .67 
 Started day ≥3 d after illness onset 37 1.09 0.72–1.65 .68 45 1.06 0.77–1.46 .72 
3a, 3b Nonea 72 ref n/ab n/a 86 ref n/ac n/a 
 Started day 0–2 after illness onset 198 1.37 1.05–1.80 .02 168 1.46 1.11–1.92 .007 
 Started day ≥3 d after illness onset 36 1.02 0.67–1.54 .94 45 1.20 0.85–1.69 .29 
ModelAntiviral UseMedical Conditions Cohort (n = 309)ICU Cohort (n = 299)
No. PatientsHR95% Confidence IntervalPNo. PatientsHR95% Confidence IntervalP
1a, 1b Nonea 73 ref n/a n/a 86 ref n/a n/a 
 Started on day of illness onset 34 1.48 0.98–2.23 .06 36 1.11 0.72–1.70 .64 
 Started 1 d after illness onset 89 1.43 1.05–1.94 .02 72 0.99 0.74–1.33 .95 
 Started 2 d after illness onset 76 1.41 1.02–1.95 .03 60 1.11 0.83–1.49 .48 
 Started 3 d after illness onset 24 1.20 0.76–1.91 .44 28 1.05 0.75–1.47 .79 
 Started ≥4 d after illness onset 13 0.89 0.46–1.71 .73 17 1.08 0.65–1.79 .77 
2a, 2b Nonea 73 ref n/a n/a 86 ref n/a n/a 
 Started day 0–2 after illness onset 199 1.43 1.09–1.87 .01 168 1.05 0.82–1.35 .67 
 Started day ≥3 d after illness onset 37 1.09 0.72–1.65 .68 45 1.06 0.77–1.46 .72 
3a, 3b Nonea 72 ref n/ab n/a 86 ref n/ac n/a 
 Started day 0–2 after illness onset 198 1.37 1.05–1.80 .02 168 1.46 1.11–1.92 .007 
 Started day ≥3 d after illness onset 36 1.02 0.67–1.54 .94 45 1.20 0.85–1.69 .29 

Models 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b are unadjusted, whereas models 3a and 3b are adjusted for confounding effects (see footnote below); HRs were determined by using the Cox model with time-dependent values for antiviral treatment; HRs <1 indicate a lower risk of discharge and longer length of hospital stay and vice versa. n/a, not applicable; ref, reference category.

a

“None” includes 57 never started on antiviral agents and 16 started on the day of discharge (73 total, medical conditions cohort); and 78 never started and 8 started on discharge (86 total, ICU cohort).

b

Model 3a is based on 306 children; adjusted for chronic lung disease (aHR: 0.65) and supplemental oxygen 24 h after admission (aHR: 0.67).

c

Model 3b is based on 100 data sets with missing data imputed (Supplemental Information); adjusted for other underlying condition (chronic metabolic disease, blood disorder, renal and liver disease; aHR: 0.69), cyanosis (aHR: 0.66), initial admission to ICU (aHR: 1.94), invasive mechanical ventilation at ICU admission (aHR: 0.61) and 24 h after ICU admission (aHR: 0.65), supplemental oxygen 24 h after admission (aHR: 0.57), pneumonia diagnosis (aHR: 0.76), and treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (aHR: 0.14).

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