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TABLE 2

Characteristics of Women and Their Infants Who are Enrolled in WIC and Intended to Only Breastfeed and Not Provide Formula or Other Milks at 1 Month Old, USDA's Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2

CharacteristicnWeighted %
Total 1080 — 
Met breastfeeding intention at month 1a   
 Yes 505 47 
 No 575 53 
 Missing 
Baby-Friendly Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeedingb,c  
 Step 4: Initiated breastfeeding within 1 h of birth  
  Yes 661 62 
  No 410 38 
  Missing — 
 Step 5: Show mothers how to breastfeed and maintain lactation even if separated 
  Yes 686 63 
  No 378 37 
  Missing 16 — 
 Step 6: No food or drinks other than breast milk   
  Yes 604 56 
  No 468 44 
  Missing — 
 Step 7: Rooming-in   
  Yes 960 89 
  No 119 11 
  Missing — 
 Step 8: Breastfeeding on demand   
  Yes 679 72 
  No 305 28 
  Missing 96 — 
 Step 9: No pacifiers given   
  Yes 583 58 
  No 495 42 
  Missing — 
Total number of steps experienced consistent with Baby-Friendly Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding 
 0–2 102 10 
 3 180 18 
 4 289 30 
 5 256 26 
 6 129 15 
 Missing 124 — 
Maternal race and ethnicity   
 Non-Hispanic White 312 25 
 Non-Hispanic Black or African American 169 12 
 Hispanic 533 57 
 Other 66 
 Missing 
Maternal age at birth, y   
 16–19 111 11 
 20–25 440 39 
 26 and older 529 51 
 Missing 
Maternal education   
 High school or less 621 60 
 More than high school 453 40 
 Missing — 
Breastfeeding history   
 No breastfeeding history 499 44 
 Any breastfeeding history 581 56 
 Missing 
Type of delivery   
 Vaginal 750 69 
 Cesarean 330 31 
 Missing 
 Preterm   
 Preterm, <37 wk 60 
 Not preterm, 37 wk or later 1020 95 
 Missing 
Household structure   
 Father of baby living with mother 655 62 
 Father of baby not living with mother 425 38 
 Missing 
Household poverty leveld   
 ≤75% of poverty guideline 652 60 
 76% to 130% of poverty guideline 302 28 
 >130% of poverty guideline 126 13 
 Missing 
Receiving WIC benefits for the first time   
 Yes 490 56 
 No 590 44 
 Missing 
CharacteristicnWeighted %
Total 1080 — 
Met breastfeeding intention at month 1a   
 Yes 505 47 
 No 575 53 
 Missing 
Baby-Friendly Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeedingb,c  
 Step 4: Initiated breastfeeding within 1 h of birth  
  Yes 661 62 
  No 410 38 
  Missing — 
 Step 5: Show mothers how to breastfeed and maintain lactation even if separated 
  Yes 686 63 
  No 378 37 
  Missing 16 — 
 Step 6: No food or drinks other than breast milk   
  Yes 604 56 
  No 468 44 
  Missing — 
 Step 7: Rooming-in   
  Yes 960 89 
  No 119 11 
  Missing — 
 Step 8: Breastfeeding on demand   
  Yes 679 72 
  No 305 28 
  Missing 96 — 
 Step 9: No pacifiers given   
  Yes 583 58 
  No 495 42 
  Missing — 
Total number of steps experienced consistent with Baby-Friendly Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding 
 0–2 102 10 
 3 180 18 
 4 289 30 
 5 256 26 
 6 129 15 
 Missing 124 — 
Maternal race and ethnicity   
 Non-Hispanic White 312 25 
 Non-Hispanic Black or African American 169 12 
 Hispanic 533 57 
 Other 66 
 Missing 
Maternal age at birth, y   
 16–19 111 11 
 20–25 440 39 
 26 and older 529 51 
 Missing 
Maternal education   
 High school or less 621 60 
 More than high school 453 40 
 Missing — 
Breastfeeding history   
 No breastfeeding history 499 44 
 Any breastfeeding history 581 56 
 Missing 
Type of delivery   
 Vaginal 750 69 
 Cesarean 330 31 
 Missing 
 Preterm   
 Preterm, <37 wk 60 
 Not preterm, 37 wk or later 1020 95 
 Missing 
Household structure   
 Father of baby living with mother 655 62 
 Father of baby not living with mother 425 38 
 Missing 
Household poverty leveld   
 ≤75% of poverty guideline 652 60 
 76% to 130% of poverty guideline 302 28 
 >130% of poverty guideline 126 13 
 Missing 
Receiving WIC benefits for the first time   
 Yes 490 56 
 No 590 44 
 Missing 

—, no percentage presented; USDA, United States Department of Agriculture.

a

Meeting breastfeeding intention at month 1 is defined as providing only breast milk for baby at the 1 mo survey.

b

Baby-Friendly Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding are based on the World Health Organization and UNICEF's Baby-friendly hospital initiative: Revised, updated, and expanded for integrated care. 2009; Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43593/1/9789241594967_eng.pdf. Accessed September 3, 2019.

c

Steps consistent with Baby-Friendly Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding are defined as follows, step 4: reporting breastfeeding started in the first hour after birth; step 5: showing mothers how to breastfeed or maintain lactation even if separated; step 6: reporting that breast milk was the very first thing fed to the baby after birth and only feeding breast milk at the time they left the hospital or birthing center; step 7: reporting that the baby stayed in the room with the mother while they were in the hospital or birthing center; step 8: reporting feeding the baby breast milk, either from the breast or from a bottle, whenever [he or she] cried or seemed hungry while in the hospital or birthing center; step 9: reporting that the baby was not provided a pacifier for the first time in the hospital after [he or she] was born.

d

Poverty guideline is defined as the 2013 poverty guidelines [Reference: US Health and Human Services. Annual update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines. Fed Regist. 2013;78(16):5182–5183].

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