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TABLE 3

Associations Between Experiencing Practices Consistent with Baby-Friendly Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding and Meeting Intention to Breastfeed and Not Provide Formula or Other Milks at 1 Month Old, USDA's Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2

Indicator consistent with Baby-Friendly Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeedingn% Met IntentionModel 1aModel 2b
Risk Ratio95% CIPRisk Ratio95% CIP
Step 4: Initiated breastfeeding within 1 h of birth         
 Yes 661 59 2.1 (1.6–2.6) <.0001 1.3 (1.0–1.6) .03 
 No 410 27 1.0 (Reference) — 1.0 (Reference) — 
Step 5: Show mothers how to breastfeed or maintain lactation even if separated         
 Yes 686 49 1.1 (1.0–1.3) .21 1.0 (0.9–1.1) .76 
 No 378 43 1.0 (Reference) — 1.0 (Reference) — 
Step 6: No food or drinks other than breast milk         
 Yes 604 73 5.3 (4.2–6.8) <.0001 4.4 (3.4–5.7) <.0001 
 No 468 14 1.0 (Reference) — 1.0 (Reference) — 
Step 7: Rooming-in         
 Yes 960 48 1.3 (0.9–1.9) .21 1.1 (0.8–1.5) .56 
 No 119 37 1.0 (Reference) — 1.0 (Reference) — 
Step 8: Breastfeeding on demand         
 Yes 679 51 1.0 (0.9–1.2) .73 1.0 (0.8–1.1) .62 
 No 305 48 1.0 (Reference) — 1.0 (Reference) — 
Step 9: No pacifiers given         
 Yes 583 53 1.4 (1.2–1.7) <.01 1.1 (1.0–.3) .09 
 No 495 39 1.0 (Reference) — 1.0 (Reference) — 
Indicator consistent with Baby-Friendly Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeedingn% Met IntentionModel 1aModel 2b
Risk Ratio95% CIPRisk Ratio95% CIP
Step 4: Initiated breastfeeding within 1 h of birth         
 Yes 661 59 2.1 (1.6–2.6) <.0001 1.3 (1.0–1.6) .03 
 No 410 27 1.0 (Reference) — 1.0 (Reference) — 
Step 5: Show mothers how to breastfeed or maintain lactation even if separated         
 Yes 686 49 1.1 (1.0–1.3) .21 1.0 (0.9–1.1) .76 
 No 378 43 1.0 (Reference) — 1.0 (Reference) — 
Step 6: No food or drinks other than breast milk         
 Yes 604 73 5.3 (4.2–6.8) <.0001 4.4 (3.4–5.7) <.0001 
 No 468 14 1.0 (Reference) — 1.0 (Reference) — 
Step 7: Rooming-in         
 Yes 960 48 1.3 (0.9–1.9) .21 1.1 (0.8–1.5) .56 
 No 119 37 1.0 (Reference) — 1.0 (Reference) — 
Step 8: Breastfeeding on demand         
 Yes 679 51 1.0 (0.9–1.2) .73 1.0 (0.8–1.1) .62 
 No 305 48 1.0 (Reference) — 1.0 (Reference) — 
Step 9: No pacifiers given         
 Yes 583 53 1.4 (1.2–1.7) <.01 1.1 (1.0–.3) .09 
 No 495 39 1.0 (Reference) — 1.0 (Reference) — 

Baby-Friendly Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding are based on the World Health Organization and UNICEF's Baby-friendly hospital initiative: Revised, updated, and expanded for integrated care. 2009; Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43593/1/9789241594967_eng.pdf. CI, confidence intervals; USDA, United States Department of Agriculture. —, P value not presented for referent categories.

a

Model 1 adjusts for maternal race and ethnicity, maternal age at birth, maternal education, any versus no breastfeeding history, vaginal or cesarean delivery, preterm birth (born <37 wk gestation), whether the father of the baby was living with the mother, household poverty level, and whether the mother was receiving WIC benefits for the first time.

b

Model 2 adjusts for the same sociodemographic factors as Model 1, as well as all the other maternity care practices.

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